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Dendrobates tinctorius morphs :

For each morph, I present a wild animal as a reference image to show the natural form, photographed in the habitat or in the terrarium. 

Many thanks to all the creators, without a guide with high quality pictures would not have been realizable.

The information is continually expanded and also supplemented with further pictures of biotope recordings and terrarium specimens.

The morphems are listed alphabetically to each country - but the order has no meaning.

Surinam :


The climate is tropical . From the beginning of December to the beginning of February, the "Kleine Regenzeit" , from the end of April to the middle of August, is the Great Rainy season. Between the beginning of February and the end of April, between the middle of August and the beginning of December, the "Kleine Trockenzeit" is located. The average daily temperature varies between 24 ° C and max. 36 ° C.


The amount of precipitation increases from the coast (about 1500 mm) into the interior of the country (up to almost 3000 mm in the southeast). The seasons follow the movement of the inner-tropic convergence zone (ITC), the boundaries between seasons, especially in the coastal area, are not to be sharply separated by the influence of the Atlantic Ocean and the associated sea ​​wind circulation .

1-  Alanis' : 

medium-sized morph with a KRL of 45-50 mm


Alanis were first exported to the USA in 1999 and shortly afterwards also to Europe. He is named after a daughter of exporter Vincent Leckie.


Alanis has a fairly large distribution area. Mention is given here to Camp 55 "/ 3", which Marcus Bartelds describes in his Tropical Experience Magazine No.2 as a location in a splendid travel report. The camp lies about 10 km southeast of the small village Apetina in the southeast of Suriname near the Tapanahony river. In Apetina mainly Wayana Indigenos live. This site is between 150 and 200 m. 


The day temperature is indicated at 26.2 ° C and at night it drops to 22.6 ° C. The humidity is very high (day: 89%, night: 91%).


Like most tinctorius morphemes, Alanis is also very variable in its coloring and patterning. The differently colored frogs are often distinguished in Alanis and Infer-Alanis. The majority of the yellow-colored specimens are supposed to be alanis and the infer alanis, which are often called "fine" (often orange) dots on the head and thin strips on the back. Infer-Alanis is said to be bigger than Alanis. In the American dendroboard, long discussions were held. Marcus Bartelds, however, thinks that the distinction is incorrect, since it is simply something different local forms in the large dissemination area of ​​Alanis. He has also found many differently colored Alanis near the camp.

Here are two powerful quotations from Marcus Bartelds:

(( I think it's all the same. We do not use the name. Inferalanis over here in europe. The difference is a bit strange ... more yellow and orange markings?

I saw / found several populations in Surinam and they were always mixed within the population ... larger and smaller animals, animals with orange markings and animals with yellow markings. .

All the same in my opinion. So the exporter who shipped to America and Europe does not know the name Inferlanis ... only Alanis (the name of his daughter).

I 'm looking for a picture of the flashlight is' destroying' the exact color. Especially with yellow ... all the frogs look the same. When you look at it, you can see it. Some are orange and some are yellow. ))

In the meantime we are discussing 'Giant Alanis', which is about to be imported - let us surprise you!


-  Alanis' biotope



Pictures from the biotope of D.tinc. 'Alanis' by Ruud Schouten

2- Awarape  :

This morph has recently caused some confusion; here is the complete information: 


He was discovered by an Indian named Theo from Tepu at the creek Awarape. The population seems to be very large and is very variable in coloring, drawing and size. The area is 'a few boat hours' away from the 'Graubeiner' habitat. Actually one should assume in this area 'Cobalts', which also told Theo.


'Awarape' are slightly smaller than 'Graubeiner' with 45 mm KRL.

The animals usually have a clear white, some animals also

a blue glimmer over the back. The legs are similar to the 'Graubeiner' gray spotted, but sometimes also blue dotted.


Jan Henzen 'Bart' has named the differently colored individuals by family members, which is funny, but also confused. Thus all the animals belong to a single large and very variable population. One can not always trust the exporters, as they naturally try to find new variants to influence the sales positively. 


For the sake of completeness, however, the individual animals, named after the family members of 'Bart', have all been found in an area between 2 and 5 hours by boat from the habitat of the 'Graubeiner'. But it is the same morph.


Vanessa: Mrs von Jan Henzen - it is a found single animal

Gabriella: daughter of Jan Henzen

Gianni: the youngest son of Jan Henzen - the often blue-legged animals are the closest to the Graubeiner habitat and the size of these animals should be up to 70 mm.





D.tinc. 'Alanis' (Picture: Ruud Schouten)

Pictures of my Alanis (all pictures: Martin Haberkern)

Alanis' couple

Alanis' couple

'Alanis' male

Alanis' couple

'Alanis' orange 3-point head

D.tinc. 'Gabriella'

3-  Azureus :

D.tinc. 'Vanessa'

D.tinc. 'Gianni'

more pictures of D.tinc. 'Gabriella' by Bart Henzen :

D.tinc. 'Azureus' (Picture: Thomas Marent)

A completely blue morph from the Sipaliwini savannah with a KRL of max. 50 mm.


D. tinctorius 'Azureus' was discovered only in 1968 and by Dr. Dr. Marinus S. Hoogmoed scientifically described. 


Very readable and entertaining is the report of the discovery of D.tinctorius 'azureus' by Hoogmoed.


'Azureus' are only found in the rest of the four Gebroeders Mountains in the south of Suriname, where they prefer to go along streams at a height of 315-430 m. However, the Indians from the area say that 'Azureus' is also to occur in Brazil.  


A biologist from the London Zoo has calculated that in the 8 remnants of the four Gebroeders Mountains +/- 5000 'Azureus' are likely to live. In Surinam one thinks that they are very rare and it is forbidden to export 'Azureus' , also because in Surinam D.tinc. 'Azureus' is not yet considered a variant of Dendrobates tinctorius . If you want to go to the Four Gebroeders Mountains, you need permission and will be asked what you will be doing. On the return you can be checked, so it will not be easy to take animals from there. The last game was supposed to be caught about 20 years ago.



Holotype of D. azureus :


Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke History, suffering = RMNH 13837a, Suriname, Nickerie:

Sipaliwini savannah, forest islands on the western slope Four Gebroedersberg, 2 ° N 55 ° 58 "W

Dendrobates 'Azureus' must be regarded as another color variant of D. tinctorius:


Dendrobates tinctorius 'Azureus' .


Read the article by Katharina C. Wollenberg:

Dendrobates tinctorius: Polymorphism or species richness 

 - Azureus' biotope :


From the years 1968 - 1970 the first pictures from the biotope of D.tinc are taken. 'Azureus' by Dr. Marinus S. Hoogmoed. Pictures of historical value!

The biotope of  Dendrobates tinctorius 'Azureus' is located in the south of the Sipaliwini savannah among the four Gebroeder Mountains, according to Hoogmoed also at Moro Grande de Cemiterio. The four adjoining mountains lie in the middle of the savannah and form a kind of damp island in the dry savannah where there are only small palm trees.


At the foot of the mountains there are 8 remnants of the forest, relics of a former coherent rainforest. Indians in this area say that 'Azureus' occurs in all these 8 forest islands and call their blue frogs affectionate 'Okopipi'. There is also a forest in Brazil where 'Azureus' occurs.


The 8 forest islands are much more open than the rain forest in Surinam, not very nice and the plant variety is not very large. 


The temperatures in the Waldinseln range between 22 and 27 ° C during the day and 20 ° C during the night. The water temperature is 25 ° C. These values ​​were measured between August and October. The relative humidity is given by Hoogmoed with 70-95%.


The following pictures are from Ian Stephen and Ruud Schouten, who traveled the 'Azureus' biotope in 2007.

Pictures from the biotope of Harald Divossen :



- Azureus Wattley line / sky blue Azureus  :


Again and again, the discussion blazes over the so-called 'Azureus Wattley line' or 'sky blue Azureus' . So here the 'facts':


Jack Wattley (known discus importer and breeder in the USA) collected Azureus in the middle of the 1990s and imported them into the USA together with fish. The current offspring of this  Azureus  import are somewhat smaller than the animals observed in the biotope (whether genetically, due to keeping or breeding condition is unclear), vary strongly in the Bärärbung and show differently many and differently large points.


The Azureus , originally imported by Jack Wattley, were followed by various breeders in the USA, and a line now appears as a pointless Azureus through consistent selection  . The others also have fewer points than the 'normal' Azureus , but still have a clearly visible point mark.


The so-called 'sky blue Azureus' have nothing to do with it, but were grown from Azureusfrom earlier imports specifically to the feature 'deep blue color with few small points' in several branch generations. 



'Azureus Wattley line' F2 (picture by Zach Brinks of Josh's Frogs)

'Azureus sky blue' (Photo: Reto Baumgartner)


 South America Dart Frogs -  Species 


Dendrobatidae :

Aromobatidae :

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