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4- Phyllobates lugubris - The lovely poison frog or lovely poison-arrow frog



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The lovely poison frog or lovely poison-arrow frog (Phyllobates lugubris) is a species of frog in the family Dendrobatidae. It is found on the Caribbean versant of Central America from southeastern Nicaragua through Costa Rica to northwestern Panama, with one record just west of the Panama Canal.[1][2][3] Populations from the Pacific versant, formerly included in this species,[4] are now identified as Phyllobates vittatus.[2]



Lovely poison frog

Conservation status :




Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)[1]

Scientific classification :







Species:P. lugubris

Binomial name :

Phyllobates lugubris
(Schmidt, 1857)

Synonyms :

Dendrobates lugubris Schmidt, 1857
Hylaplesia lugubris (Schmidt, 1857)
Phyllobates beatriciae Barbour and Dunn, 1921

Description :


Adult males measure 18.5–21 mm (0.73–0.83 in) and females 21–24 mm (0.83–0.94 in) in snout–vent length. Maxillary teeth are present. The dorsum is black with a pair of dorsolateral stripes, typically pale yellow to gold or orange, running along the sides of the dorsum from near the hindlimbs to the snout. The limbs are usually mottled with yellow–greenish yellow. The ventral surfaces are mottled with extensive black pigment, often to an extent that gives nearly solid black appearance.[4][3]


Habitat and conservation


Phyllobates lugubris inhabits humid lowland forests (marginally the premontane forests) at elevations of 10–601 m (33–1,972 ft) above sea level. It can also occur in secondary growth and plantations. It is diurnal and terrestrial. Adult frogs are often found by rocky sections of forest streams. Eggs are laid in dry leaf-litter. The hatching tadpoles are transported by males to forest streams to complete the larval development.[1]


General habitat loss and pollution are potential threats to this species. Chytrid fungos Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been detected in museum specimens buts its impact on natural populations is unknown. Phyllobates lugubris is sometimes present in the pet trade, with some illegal collection occurring. It is listed in the CITES Appendix II. It is present in several protected areas.[1]

Distribution of Phyllobates lugubris

For the external links , refrences  click here to read the full wikipedia article 

Video : 

Phyllobates lugubris calling

Care articles :


1-Scientific. Name: Phyllobates lugubris (S CHMIDT , 1857) 

courtesy to :



The generic name Phyllobates comes from the Greek words "fyllo" (= leaf) and "bates" (= runners). The combination "Blattläufer" (Blatteiger) refers to more ground-oriented habitat of the species in the Krautschicht of the rainforest. Theepithet lugubris originates from the Latin (meaning mourning) and refers to the predominantly dark coloring of the animals (black flanks, back and throat). Derived from this is also the German name "Duster Blattsteiger".


English name: Lovely Poison Frog 
German name: Kleiner Blattsteiger (after Heselhaus)


Amphibian-> Anura-> Dendrobatoidea-> Dendrobatidae-> Dendrobatinae-> Phyllobates -> Phyllobates lugubris (S CHMIDT , 1857)



Phyllobates lugubris
"Isla Cristóbal" 

Phyllobates lugubris
"Isla Cristóbal" 

Phyllobates lugubris
"Isla Cristóbal" 
Ventral view 

Phyllobates lugubris
"Isla Cristóbal" 

Phyllobates lugubris
"Isla Solarte" 

Description : 



19 - 23 mm, 


Females are somewhat fuller and larger



P. lugubris is considered a color not so attractive frog. However, this applies only to some variants. Like D. pumilio and D. auratus, P. lugubris has also developed some varieties in Panama and Costa Rica, which differ in color and body size. 
The island variants are significantly smaller and more variable in color than the mainland forms. The basic color is black. There are two 
Dorsolateralstreifen in pale yellow to strong gold orange. Some populations show a median strip on the back. In a population (colón), these three strips merge into an almost completely yellow surface. The leg tops are mottled in strip color. This pattern is also more or less extended. The variation of Colón appears almost flat in color due to the flat expanse of these patterns! The belly is black with a blue marble pattern, the throat is black. (Description T. Ostrowski)



Fig .: Dorsal and ventral view Phyllobates lugubris
"Buena Esperanza" 


up to 10 years



14-16 months. The first scrims are often of inferior quality (fungal).



Behavior (Ethology)

General Behavior:

The animals are very active and call especially in the morning, in the evening and with increased humidity. The animals are very territorial and not only dte animal are sprung. In the pairing it is quite stormy to I was able to observe correctly toadlike rape scenes with clinging. During spawning, however, no headamplexus takes place. (Description T. Ostrowski)


courtship behavior:





Fig .: P. lugubris Male on call, Puerto Viejo-Costa Rica 

Brood care behavior:



Fig .: Larvae spot in a tree cavity 

Fig .: Water accumulations in leaves lying on the ground also serve as an outlet for larvae 

Habitat :


typefundort of the first description

"New Granada" (Colombia and Panama); is limited to: "the route between Bocca del toro and the Vulcan Chiriqui [Panama] between 5000 and 7000 altitude" sensu F ROST (2006)



Caribbean lowland rainforests of Costa Rica and northwest Panama at 0-600 m altitude. 
After Birkhahn (1994) also up to higher positions over the watershed of the Cordillera Central (1450 m)


The biotopes I visited were located in the province of Bocas del Toro, Panama. 
They were wet sinks in the lowland rain forest of the Caribbean coast and the islands. The soil was shady and very humid during the rainy season. The temperature on the ground was 26 degrees and hardly decreased at night. Rinnsaal and puddles covered the ground between large trees. The ground was mostly covered with foliage and weeded in many places. The animals often lived sympathetically with D. pumilio, C. nubicola, C. talamancae and D. auratus, the P. lugubris and the colostetes preferring the deeper moist parts of the forest (larval rearing in smaller waters). P. lugubris can, however, also colonize more dry and cooler biotopes.
Animals from climatically different biotopes should also be kept accordingly! (O STROWSKI , pers. Observation)

Narrow indio trail at Puerto Viejo de Talamancae. Biotope of Phyllobates lugubris . Prov. Limón, Costa Rica. 

Biotopes of P. lugubris are often small Quebradas, which can also serve as larvae. Isla Solarte, Prov. Bocas del Toro, Panama. 

Forest floor on Isla Solarte. Water accumulations in the palm fronds serve P. lugubris partly as a larvae sales point. Prov. Bocas del Toro, Panama. 

The dwarfs of the mangrove crab dug into the soft clay are also inhabited by Phyllobates lugubris as a sub-tenant. Isla Solarte, Prov. Bocas del Toro, Panama 

 Phyllobates lugubris in the foliage layer in the biotope. Isla Solarte, Prov. Bocas del Toro, Panama. 

Phyllobates lugubris in the entrance of a crab-living cave. 
Isla Solarte, Prov. Bocas del Toro, Panama. 

Attitude in the terrarium :


Terrarium / Facility:

Slightly larger basins (longer than high) from: 60x40x40 cm. Automatic irrigation and fog system recommended. Furnishings with dense vegetation and shelter in the form of coconut shells and / or photodoses. But it is quite common.



24-26 ° C, slightly cooler at night. Keep animals from high altitude cooler! 
No pronounced periods of dryness but as a spawning hold cool and dry for a few weeks. Minimum annual temperature fluctuation (1-2 ° C)



85-95%, at noon to 80%, in the morning and in the evening 100% (mist) 
Yearly fluctuations: rainy season with high humidity and rain between May and September, but not so pronounced (constantly humid) on the Caribbean side.




Usual small and medium-sized animal animals 
Drosophila, Micro-Heimchen (also somewhat larger), jumping tails, meadow plankton. Young animals very small, but also manage small Drosophila.



Group maintenance is well possible (For me 3.3 in 80x50x50 cm). The animals are often crowded, but they are usually very stressful. 
Males stimulate the call and females like to choose, therefore at least 2.1



Tips for breeding:

The eggs are deposited in caves or in bromeliaxle leaves. Photodoses are preferred. 
Sets 10-30 Eggs 
Developmental Period Eggs: 16-18 days 
The male guard his carcass. 
Active transport of the burbots through the male into slightly larger water accumulations, usually puddles. 
All bugs are usually transported together and deposited, often they are carried on their backs for a few days and grow there also clearly.


Development time of burbot: 80-90 days, water temperature at 24 ° C, night reduction recommended. The burbots can be reared together and fed with the usual varieties of frost and dry food for ornamental fish.


For the first 8 weeks the young animals are quite sensitive to environmental changes. 
They grow rather slowly and are often sexually mature after 16-18 months. Otherwise the rearing does not cause any problems (Description T. Ostrowski, Photo: Balz - Copyright 2002 Harald Divossen)


Variants in terrarium keeping:

- Buena Esperanza

- Cahuita

- Cerro Brucho

- Chiriqui Grande

- holotype

- Isla Bastimentos

- Isla Cólon

- Isla Cristóbal

- Isla Escudo

- Puerto Viejo

- Solarte



Phyllobates lugubris "Isla Cólon" 

Phyllobates lugubris "Cólon"

Phyllobates lugubris "Buena Esperanza"

Phyllobates lugubris "Puerto Viejo" 

Phyllobates lugubris "Puerto Viejo" 

Phyllobates lugubris "Isla Escudo" 

Phyllobates lugubris "Cólon"

Phyllobates lugubris "Isla Escudo"

Phyllobates lugubris "Isla Escudo"

Phyllobates lugubris "Puerto Viejo" 

For more information about resources for the above article .. click here 

Phyllobates lugubris "Puerto Viejo"

Phyllobates lugubris
"Puerto Viejo" 
Fighting males 

Phyllobates lugubris "Chiriqui Grande"

Phyllobates lugubris "Isla Escudo"

Phyllobates lugubris "Isla Cólon" 

Phyllobates lugubris
"Isla Cristóbal" 

Phyllobates lugubris "Cólon"

Madagascar Dart frogs


Aromobatidae :

 South America Dart Frogs -  Species 


Dendrobatidae :

Phyllobates genus  :

Introduction .. 

Species :


1- Phyllobates bicolor, also known as the black-legged poison frog, bicolored dart frog  

                                                Part One   ..  Part Two  ..  Part Three 

2-Phyllobates terribilis - the golden frog, golden poison arrow frog, or golden dart frog 

                                               Part One   ..  Part Two  ..  Part Three 

3- Phyllobates vittatus  - The Golfodulcean poison frog or Golfodulcean poison-arrow frog  

                                               Part One   ..  Part Two  ..  Part Three 

4- Phyllobates lugubris - The lovely poison frog or lovely poison-arrow frog

                                               Part One   ..  Part Two ..

5- Phyllobates aurotaenia    ..   Part One   ..  Part Two  ..  Part Three 

Phyllobates genus  :

Introduction .. 

Species :


1- Phyllobates bicolor, also known as the black-legged poison frog, bicolored dart frog  

                                                Part One   ..  Part Two  ..  Part Three 

2-Phyllobates terribilis - the golden frog, golden poison arrow frog, or golden dart frog 

                                               Part One   ..  Part Two  ..  Part Three 

3- Phyllobates vittatus  - The Golfodulcean poison frog or Golfodulcean poison-arrow frog  

                                               Part One   ..  Part Two  ..  Part Three 

4- Phyllobates lugubris - The lovely poison frog or lovely poison-arrow frog

                                               Part One   ..  Part Two ..

5- Phyllobates aurotaenia    ..   Part One   ..  Part Two  ..  Part Three 

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