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19- Sagittaria plants :

Sagittaria Species and Cultivars


Also known as Duck Potato, Swamp Potato and Arrowhead, Sagittaria are true shallow and deep water marginal plants that are common in the wild throughout the Northern Hemisphere.  There are about 30 wild species and a large number of these species are small and sold in the aquarium trade.  But, there also a handful of species and cultivars that are sold as True marginal pond plants.  All Arrowheads grow at different heights and produce white petal’s that vary in size. Individual species produce flowers that have different coloured brown, yellow, and maroon markings.  They are best suited to full sun but will tolerate slight partial shade.  Sagittaria thrive when grown in under water clay and mud.  In many countries, the bulbs are harvested in spring from just below the surface of the mud and eaten raw or boiled, and are also used to make Sagittaria crisps.  It’s not just humans that like to eat the bulbs hence the name Duck Potato.


Please click on the links below for pictures and information:

- Sagittaria Saggitifolia   –  (Pointed Arrowhead)

- Sagittaria Japonica       –  (Japanese Arrowhead)

- Sagittaria Japonica Flore Plena  – (Double Flowered Japanese Arrowhead)

- Sagittaria Lanccifolia    –  (Lance Leafed Arrowhead)

- Sagittaria Graminea     –   (Grassy Sagittaria)

The last on the list Sagittaria Graminea, is by far my favorite as it produces masses of white flowers throughout June and July.  It’s also an excellent oxygenating and nitrate removing plant and extremely useful in combating algae and blanket weed problems, thus resulting in crystal clear water.

Videos :

Plant Sagittaria in Pond Anhinga

How to grow foreground plants: Dwarf Sag Species Sunday

Species :


1-Sagittaria graminea :
a rapidly spreading species with lanceolate leaves, not native and rather inclined to go bonkers. I’d choose one of the others if I were you.

• Height 5-20cm
• Sun or part shade 
• Plant 01-20cm deep



The foliage of Crushed Ice has an intriguing dramatic effect of green and yellow stippled leaves. The arrow-shaped long thin foliage grows to 2' tall above the water line in partial sun to partial shade with small white flowers in mid summer.


Variegated Arrowhead (Sagittaria graminea "Crushed Ice")
Hardiness Zone: 5-11
Light Requirements: Full Sun to Part Shade
Height: 12" to 18" - Spread: 12"
Water Depth: Moist or water up to 4" deep (Maximum water depth is for mature bog plants)


Common Name:Sagittariea 'Crushed Ice'

Scientific Name:Sagittariea graminea 'Crushed Ice'

Flower Color:White

Leaf Color:Green

Height:To 24"

Hardiness Zone:Zones 5 11

Native To:North America

Available As:2" Pot and 4" Pot


Sagittaria graminea is a ANNUAL/PERENNIAL growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). 
It is hardy to zone (UK) 6 and is not frost tender. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers wet soil and can grow in water.


Sagittaria sinensis. Sims.


 Pond; Bog Garden;

Facts About:

Native to freshwater shorelines and shallow water in eastern North America, grass-leaved arrowhead is a popular ornamental aquatic plant, and as such has been introduced outside its range, both within and outside North America. In some cases it has become invasive. Several parts of the plant are edible, but it is not as widely used for food as northern arrowhead (Sagittaria cuneata) or common arrowhead (S. latifolia).

Habitat :

Fresh tidal marshes or flats, lacustrine (in lakes or ponds), riverine (in rivers or streams), shores of rivers or lakes, wetland margins (edges of wetlands)

Sagittaria graminea Crushed Ice
a less vigorous derivative of the species with leaves attractively splashed and marbled in white. Something unusual.

• Height 5-20cm
• Sun or part shade 
• Plant 5-20cm deep

2- Sagittaria latifolia (duck potato):
has broader leaves and a large overwintering tuber relished by waterfowl. Ducks regularly trash my planting so it’s well named! Can be invasive in planted in rich mud in larger ponds.

• Height 60cm 
• Sun or part shade 
• Plant 01-20cm deep

Sagittaria latifolia, Duck potato, is a vigorous aquatic perennial that typically grows 2-4’ tall. Known for its arrowhead-shaped leaves, Sagittaria latifolia commonly grows submerged in shallow water or out of water on wet muddy banks, sloughs, swamps, marshes and margins of streams and ponds. Sagittaria latifolia is easy to naturalize and will colonize by spreading rhizomes as well as self seed.  Duck Potato is a valuable food source for waterfowl and can also be enjoyed with olive oil and garlic.


  • Duck Potato (Sagittaria latifolia) Shallow water,marginal pond plant. Interesting arrow shaped leaves and white flowers 3cm across.

  • Height can grow up to 80 cm ( 31 inches )

  • We would recommend a planting basket of at least 11cm across for one plant or, for more impact, plant several of the same variety in a larger basket.

The Sagittaria sagittifolia (Arrowhead) are no longer looking good enough to send out by mail order.

We have them on the Nursery still but they are like a daffodil – once the plant has flowered the foliage dies back to help bulk up next years’ bulbs.

If your Sagittaria sagittifolia leaves have gone over and look yellow – don’t panic – there should be 3 or more bulbs in or near the basket that will give you next years show of arrowhead leaf and flowers. They will be growing on the ends of long stem like tendrils and will continue to grow larger as long as they are attached to the parent plant.

Locate the bulbs if you can when they have fallen away from the joining stem and push these bulbs back into the mud of the basket to know where they will grow from next year.

Often the parent basket will look empty after a year or two but the Sagittaria will appear growing in another basket nearby.

Arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia)

A native plant that produces large white flowers with dark purple centres that are almost black.  

  • Plant Type - Pond Marginal

  • Normally Available from - Mid April

  • Water Depth - 2cm to 20cm

  • Height - 50cm to 70cm

  • Position - Full Sun to Part Shade

  • Growth - Medium

  • Flowers - Jul to Sep

  • Flower Colour - White

  • Foliage - Deciduous 

  • Hardiness - Hardy

  • UK Native and Wildlife Friendly

Specific Plant Care:
Little maintenance is required. Trim just above the water surface after foliage has died back in Autumn to tidy.

General Marginal Care:
All our plants will come potted in aquatic compost. Our 9cm plants come in a solid pot, so will need to be repotted.

The 1ltrs and 3ltrs will come in Finofil aquatic baskets ready to be placed on your pond shelf at the required depth (use bricks to change the depth if required). The mesh pot allows nutrients and oxygen from the pond to flow through the pot without any soil loss.

Common Name: broadleaf arrowhead

Type: Herbaceous perennial

Family: Alismataceae

Native Range: Eastern and central North America

Zone: 5 to 10

Height: 1.00 to 4.00 feet

Spread: 1.00 to 3.00 feet

Bloom Time: July to September

Bloom Description: White

Sun: Full sun

Water: Wet

Maintenance: Medium

Suggested Use: Water Plant, Naturalize, Rain Garden

Flower: Showy

Attracts: Birds

3- Sagittaria sagittifolia (arrowhead)
S sagittifolia is native, with attractive deeply cleft arrow-shaped leaves and smallish three-petalled white flowers in midsummer. It overwinters as small green buds called turions deep in the mud. 

• Height 40-80cm 
• Sun or part shade 
• Plant 01-20cm deep

Sagittaria sagittifolia leucopetala
Can be invasive in planted in rich mud in larger ponds.

• Height 60cm
• Full sun or part shade 
• Plant 5-20cm deep

Arrow Head Sagittaria sagittifolia leucopetala - 3L Pot

This plants white flowers have gorgeous yellow centres. It is a moisture loving plant that will grow well in bog gardens and pond margins. Its foliage takes on an arrow shape, hence its common name; the Arrow Head.

Characteristics :

  • Flower Colour: white/yellow

  • Foliage Colour: green

  • Approx. Growth Height: up to 1m

  • Spread: up to 50cm

  • Flowering Time: summer, late summer

  • Uses: ponds, bog gardens

  • Growing Habit: creeping

  • Exposure: exposed or sheltered

  • Hardiness: hardy

  • Rate of Growth: moderate


  • Light Requirements: full sun

  • Soil Requirements: clay, loamy, sand, neutral, alkaline, acid

  • Moisture: moist to wet

Caring and Maintenance:

This plant is low maintenance. However, the occasional removal of deadheads is recommended to help prolong flowering. It can be propagated through division, seeds, or basal cuttings.


  • Planting Depth: up to 10cm (above the crown)

Plant in bog gardens or in shallow water with a depth of up to 10cm above the crown. This plant is suitable for zones 1 & 2 of a pond. Aquatic and marginal plants should be placed in pond plant baskets filled with aquatic soil (sold separately) and topped with a thin layer of gravel to help prevent the soil from washing away.

- Sagittaria sagittifolia leucopetala Flore Pleno
Can be invasive in planted in rich mud in larger ponds.

• Height 60cm
• Full sun or part shade 
• Plant 5-20cm deep

Double-Flowered Arrowhead, Double-Flowered Swamp Potato.

  • Approximate height: 45 - 90cm (18 - 36 inches)

  • Recommended water depth over crown of plant: 8 - 15cm (3 - 6 inches)

  • Flowering time: July to August

  • Flower colour: White

  • Supplied bare root

This is a double-flowered variety of the native British Arrowhead, with bright-green arrow-shaped leaves and pure white fluffy pom-pom flowers held above the foliage.


Planting Tips: Sagittaria sagittifolia overwinters as a small round tuber (the 'potato') from autumn until early spring. If you have purchased the plant from us during this time and received a tuber, plant this tuber with the growing point upwards, and about two inches of soil over the top of the growing point. We recommend starting your Sagittaria sagittifolia 'Flore Pleno' off in a pot of 2 litres capacity. Read more on how to pot and care for your plant here.

20-Typha plant :

Typha /ˈtaɪfə/ is a genus of about 30 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Typhaceae. These plants have many common names, in British Englishas bulrush, or reedmace,  in American English as cattail,  punks, or corn dog grass, in Australia as cumbungi or bulrush, in Canada as bulrush or cattail, and in New Zealand as raupō. Other taxa of plants may be known as bulrush, including some sedges in Scirpus and related genera.

The genus is largely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, where it is found in a variety of wetland habitats.

The rhizomes are edible. Evidence of preserved starch grains on grinding stones suggests they were already eaten in Europe 30,000 years ago. 

Videos :

Cattail - Typha - Bullrush - Cattails - Typha latifolia - How to Grow Cattails

Species :


1-   Typha latifolia (Reedmace/Bulrush):
NOTE: NOT bulrush! There are two native species; T latifolia, larger with broader leaves and T angustifolia with narrower leaves.

The construction of the 'poker' also differs, with the former having male and female parts adjacent (oo er missus) and the latter with a definite gap between them. Both are too invasive for small ponds, but excellent for larger wildlife plantings. There is also an excellent variegated form of T latifolia. 

• Height 50cm -2 metres 
• Full sun 
• Plant 0cm deep

A very vigorous native plant not suitable for lined ponds as the rhizomes can pierce the liner. Spikes on show from Jun-Aug. Plant in a hot and sunny position. A valuable plant providing egg laying sites for adult dragonfly, also perching and roosting sites. The larvae use the stems to climb out of the water

Height: 2-3m

Planting position: Pond marginal plant up to 20cm

2- Typha Angustifolia :
The narrow leaved native reedmace with dark brown pokers, only slightly less invasive than T latifolia 

• Height 200cm 
• Full sun
• Plant 0-20cm deep

Flowering Time: June-October
Height: 150 cm
Water Depth: 0-60 cm

Lesser Reed mace. A british wild native marginal with narrow leaves. Brown flower spikes. Suitable for natural clay bottomed ponds, lakes and streams in full sun and partial shade. Must be containerised in a small pond. Height 150 cm. Flowering time July-October. Water depth 0-60 cm over the rhizome.

Description :

Flowers: August-December.  Plant in sun or part shade.  HxS 2mxunlimited

The lesser reed-mace is often mistakenly called a bulrush.  It is a strong growing plant which can become invasive and is therefore only suitable for larger ponds or lakes or for large areas of boggy ground.  It is best grown in full sun.  The slender brown poker flowers appear in late summer and over winter before bursting to release their seed.  They can be dried and used in flower arrangements. Native. This is a useful plant when used together with Norfolk Reed in mixed planting for septic tank outflows.

Care & Maintenance. :

Remove old foliage in spring and split plants every three or four years to maintain vigour.  May be divided after flowering or collect and sow seed.  If planting in a lined pond it is best to keep all Typha containerised.  Planting depth in water 30cm/12”

3- Typha Gracilis
A medium sized variety, still just as invasive, but if you cut back sideshoots to keep in check this is a lovely plant.

• Height 150cm 
• Full sun
• Plant 0-15cm deep

  • Buy in a 1 litre basket (11cm/4" high)

  • Thin reedmace leaves and 10cm (4") light brown seedheads (formerly Typha gracilis)

  • Height 90cm (36") seedhead in Summer

  • Plant with between 0 - 22cm (0" - 9") of water over the top of the basket in a sunny or partially shaded pond. Suitable for shelf 0 or shelf 1

Typha lugdunensis (Typha gracilis) is a compact variety of reed mace. It needs to be trimmed back in Autumn but will not be as invasive as the rootstock of the other more vigorous Typha species. It can, however, have pointed rootstock so placing the basket in a solid container is a good idea. Roots will absorb nutrients and pollutants hence this Typha species can be used in natural filtration projects like reed beds.

deal for a medium or large pond, the Medium Bulrush that's available on GardenSite, has attractive seed heads that add valuable structural interest.

Just right for if you have a large or medium sized pond with characteristic narrow leaves and chocolate coloured seed heads, the contents of which will be carried away in the wind. Be careful, left alone it will become invasive.

Typha Gracilis Features:

  • Sun/Shade: Full Sun

  • Flowers: July - September

  • Minimum Planting Depth: 1cm

  • Maximum Planting Depth: 30cm

  • Height: 100-150cm

  • Growth Rate: Fast

Care Instructions:

Attractive seed heads may be left all winter if desired but best cleared if they fall into the water. Cut back foliage before spring growth starts.

 Typha Latifolia Variegata 
A beautiful clean white variegation sets this one apart and lasts all season, otherwise as above. A great specimen plant in a (very) large basket 

• Height 240cm 
• Full sun
• Plant 0-50cm deep

  • Buy in a 1 litre solid pot (11cm/4" high)

  • Variegated 'Bullrush' Typha latifolia 'Variegata' with cream striped leaf and 15cm (6") tall light brown seed spikes

  • Height 150cm (60") Seedhead in Summer

  • Plant with between 15 - 30cm (6" - 12") of water over the top of the basket in a sunny or partially shaded pond. Suitable for shelf 2

Typha latifolia Variegata can have sharp rootstock. For root control, place basket inside a larger solid pot or in a clay based pond it can be allowed to raft through an area of water. Roots will absorb nutrients and pollutants hence all Typha latifolia species can be used in natural filtration projects like reed beds. Plant deep in the water to protect the crown of the Typha latifolia Variegata from frost and ice.

Variegated Cattail
Typha latifolia variegatus


  • Hardy zones 4 - 11 [See Map]

  • Growing height: 3-4'.

  • Planting depth: Top of the pot should be 0-8" below the water surface.

  • Thrives in full sun to partial shade.

  • Green and white striped foliage highlighted by large brown catkins in summer.

4- Typha Laxmanii
The golden brown pokers are the main attraction for this medium to large variety. 

• Height 180cm 
• Full sun
• Plant up to 20cm deep

Description :

Flowers: August-December.  Plant in sun or part shade.  HxS 1mx1m

The slender reedmace is probably the best Typha for medium to large garden ponds.  It has a compact, upright habit and produces slim brown pokers late in the season, which can be dried. These pokers rarely exceed 8cm/3″ in length.  It is best planted in full sun in an aquatic basket.  Reedmace will also grow in boggy conditions, but again we recommend you containerise the plant as it spreads.
Care & Maintenance.

Remove old foliage in spring and split plants every three or four years to maintain vigour.  May be divided after flowering or collect and sow seed.  If planting in water plant up to 25cm/10” deep.

5- Typha Minima

The dwarf Typha suitable for smaller ponds but can still run about a bit! Confine in a basket in garden ponds. Lift basket occasionally and cut off sharp roots or stand pot on a piece of paving slab or a couple of offcuts of liner, just in case!

• Height 30cm 
• Full sun
• Plant 0-10cm deep

  • Buy in a 1 litre basket (11cm/4" high)

  • Miniature Bullrush (Typha minima)

  • 2cm (1" approx) rounded seedheads and thin reedmace leaves

  • Height 60cm (24").

  • Plant with between 5 - 10cm (2" - 4") of water over the top of the basket in a sunny or partially shaded pond or container pond. Suitable for shelf 1

Typha minima (Miniature bullrush) is not invasive. Trim back foliage of Typha minima in Autumn to above water height and allow plant to remain congested in its basket for more bulrush heads.

Dwarf Cattail

Dwarf Cattail
Typha minima

  • Hardy zones 3 - 11 [See Map]

  • Growing height: 12-18".

  • Planting depth: Top of the pot should be 0-3" below the water surface.

  • Thrives in full sun to partial shade.

  • Small brown catkins appearing in summer are surrounded by narrow, grassy, reed-like leaves.

6-Typha Shuttleworthii
A medium to tall variety, pokers are shorter and almost ovoid. Something unusual 

• Height 180cm 
• Full sun
• Plant up to 20cm deep

Position: Full sun to partial shade

Flowering period: Summer

Soil: Wet (planting depth 0cm to 60cm)

Eventual Height: 1.5m

Eventual Spread: 70cm

Hardiness: 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b

Family: Typhaceae

Typha shuttleworthii is a deciduous, marginal, perennial, freshwater wetland species. Its light green leaves are upright, strap shaped are up to 1.5cm wide and 1.5m long. Its dark brown monoecious flowers are cylindrical, are up to 30cm long and borne on long flower stalks. Its roots of this plant are rhizomes which aids its spread.


Typha shuttleworthii, commonly known as Reedmace or the Broadleaf Cattail, is native to Central and Southern Europe to south west Asia. This plant is under threat in a number of its natural environments.


The etymological root of the binomial name Typha is derived from the Greek name for this plant, Tufh.  Shuttleworthii, we believe, is named after the botanist Robert James Suttlewort (1810 – 1874), reader feed back on this would be welcome.


The landscape architect may find Typha shuttleworthii useful for pond, streams and lake planting. This species of Typha is not as invasive as others. It is suitable for use as part of a Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) in the form of drainage ditches and swales.


Ecologically, Typha shuttleworthii provides food and nesting sites for waterfowl, marsh birds and small mammals.


Typha shuttleworthii prefers wet, fertile soils. It tolerates most pH of soil.


Typha shuttleworthii requires little maintenance. Unwanted plants may be removed either mechanically or by the use of appropriate herbicide.

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