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Aquarium Maintenance :

     When we finished all the works.. fill the water time now to cycle the aquarium , So the first part of this section of the aquarium division in this site we will learn how to maintain the aquarium and keep it clean , healthy and noticeable form the visitors .

   Aquarium  Nitrogen Cycle :

        When starting a new tank, you must "cycle" your aquarium. This means cultivating the right bacteria in your filter system by allowing nature to take it's course. Cycling is explained in the 7 steps in the picture below. Once your tank is fully cycled, your system will have the right biological and chemical balance for livestock. 

      You can also start cycle with uncured live rock. Once cycling is complete and live rock is cured, there should be no more die-off or smell from your live rock. Also, waste from your protein skimmer should be greatly reduced. 

Cycling may take 4-8 weeks. Remember, add livestock slowly as livestock creates waste which creates ammonia. You have to allow time for bacteria to catch up and multiply to keep your system balanced.

*Also note: Some people will use small fish or inverts to cycle, but this is unnecessary. Do not use damsels, especially. Damsels are aggressive and you will limit what you can add to your tank later if you do not take the fish out.

     Freshwater aquarium maintenance schedule :


      A tank will only survive for so long without regular, thorough maintenance. Regular water changes and cleaning are vital to the health of your fish. All of the maintenance routines discussed below should become second nature after a while, but it is a good idea to schedule the weekly and monthly tasks on your calendar, just so you don’t forget them or put them off for too long. If you leave too much time between water changes or cleanings, the damage may be irreversible.

      First of all, there are some supplies you will need for cleaning your tank. This equipment should be used for tank cleaning only and not for any other household chores. Using the same bucket for tank cleaning as for washing your car, for example, could eventually mix some soap or chemical residue into your tank water and quite likely kill your fish. A minimum of two buckets should be set aside for use in aquarium maintenance. These buckets will be used for water changes, gravel washing, treating sick fish or acclimating new fish, and many other cleaning-related activities.


Daily Maintenance: 


Take advantage of your daily feeding time to check a few things in your tank. First, look at your fish. Take at least a few minutes to observe them each day. Get to know their appearances as well as their behaviors. Once you become very familiar with your fish, it will be easy for you to notice any changes that could indicate a problem.

Check the temperature of the tank every day to make sure it is at an appropriate level and the heater is functioning properly. As long as the temperature stays within a range of 3 or 4 degrees, your fish should do just fine, but if it is varying more than that, you will want to inspect your heater and perhaps consider purchasing a new one. Another good idea is to touch the tank with the back of your hand any time you are near it, just so you can immediately recognize an extreme temperature change.

Checking the filter should be another part of your daily maintenance routine. Many filters will run reliably for years and years, but at any time, a problem can arise. Make sure the filter is still running and that the water is flowing at the same rate as usual. A filter that is partially clogged or has stopped running altogether will immediately begin to put the health of your fish at risk.




What you see when you monitor your aquarum : 

1- Heater work or not . 

2- 3- check the fish health by checking the eyes , fins and sale , general movement and behavior do  the regular feeding .. 

4- Check the water clearity and the requred checking by regular water tests .

5- check the plants and the Developing tops , it's  leaves stems and general health .

6- check  the gravel , soil or the botom base .

7-8- check the glass and corner from any algae or waste copounds , notice the snails , algae development .

Weekly Maintenance:

Several tasks should be performed on a weekly basis, if possible. These include water changes, glass cleaning, and vacuuming.


Water Changes:
One of the most serious problems a fish tank will encounter is waste buildup. In the wild, waste will quickly disperse throughout the water, but in a tank, waste can quickly accumulate. Waste buildup is a problem because it can make a tank appear dirty, but it also brings a much more serious problem: ammonia. This substance is produced by fish and by the bacteria that break down waste, uneaten food, and other things in the water.
One way to keep debris buildup to a minimum is to conduct frequent water changes. Regular, partial water changes are unequaled in their ability to keep a tank fresh and your fish healthy. Fish are constantly producing waste (urine, feces, and other wastes, such as ammonia), and in a tank, this waste has no where to go. In a dirty tank, fish are forced to intake these wastes through their gills every time they breathe.
Recommendations on how much water should be changed during each water change vary greatly, from 10 percent to 100 percent. Simply put, the bigger the water change, the better. If you can change all of the water on a weekly basis, your fish will be better off for it. However, since many hobbyists will not be able to find the time or energy to complete that task, a 50-percent change once a week is recommended and seems to work well for most freshwater tanks.
A water change can be simple or more complicated, depending on the method you choose. The tried-and-true bucket and hose method is probably the easiest and most popular. To use this method, simply place a bucket lower than the aquarium and use some tubing to siphon water from the tank into the bucket.
There are also water-driven changers that avoid the danger of spilling a bucket of water all over the floor. These changers use the flow of water from the tap to create suction in a tube. When the appropriate amount of water has been taken out of the aquarium, the flick of a switch allows water to flow from the tap back through the tubing and into the aquarium. Remember to always make sure that the replacement water is the same temperature as the water that was removed to avoid shocking your fish.


Glass Cleaning: 
Cleaning algae off of the glass once a week will keep your tank looking clean and make for easy viewing of your fish. Keep in mind that algae is not a bad thing, when confined to the glass, so it is a good idea to clean only the panes of glass that you use for viewing and clean any others less frequently. Glass cleaning will be performed with a scraper made of metal or plastic blades or an abrasive pad. Work slowly and smoothly, being careful not to scratch the tank.Be sure to use the proper scraper as per the tank materials if it is made from Acrylic the blade of scraper made from plastic , if it is glas will be made from metal .. 


Some hobbyists do not vacuum the gravel ever time they change the water, but a good vacuuming once a week is highly recommended. Keeping the gravel free of detritus will allow the filter to function more efficiently. To vacuum the gravel, use a siphon with a gravel tube on the end, plunging the tube into the substrate. As the gravel is lifted partway up the tube, dirt particles (including uneaten food and feces) are sucked up and out of the tank, and then the gravel is dropped back to the bottom of the aquarium.


Changing 20 to 25 % of the water is very good to enhanced the aquarium quality ..


 PH reading important to know your water 


 Water Auto Changer is a device used to change the water Automatically by connecting the aquarium with bib tap and wash basin ..


 Some useful tools used in aquarium maintenance : Flexiable hose , Scraper , Two net in diferent sizes ... etc 


  Don't forget to add the water conditioner to accimate the water to be safe for aquatic life. 


   Scrapers used to remove the algae which cover the front side of the aquarium .
   scissors used to cut the over grow of plants .. 


 Monthly Maintenance: 
Filter Cleaning: 
Biofilters can become clogged with debris, preventing a smooth flow of water. A gentle rinsing with water from the tank at its normal temperature should be sufficient to clear the filter of any clogs.
Cover Glass Cleaning: 
Whether you have a glass top or a hood top on your tank, any tank cover will require a regular cleaning. The outside will be dusty, and the inside will have accumulated calcium deposits and algae, particularly near the light. It is especially important to clean the cover regularly if you’re keeping live plants in the tank, as buildup will significantly reduce the amount of light reaching the plants.
Additional Maintenance: 
One final maintenance concern is in regards to the chemistry of your tank. While this subject is too complicated to speak about in detail here, you must know that it is very important to maintain appropriate levels of ammonia and pH in your aquarium. For a thorough look at this topic, readThe Simple Guide to Freshwater Aquariums (T.F.H. Publications, Inc.).


  Vacuum the bottom is important in order to clean the base of the aquarium from any waste ..


  Vacuum Device is simple and effecient and low price 


Aquarium Snail proplem : 
     One day you gaze at your aquarium and notice a small snail on the glass. It looks harmless enough. A week later the snail has half a dozen companions. Before you know it, the tank is crawling with them.
      Where did they come from? How did they multiply so rapidly? More importantly, what can you do to get rid of them? Anyone who has fought the snail battle knows it is a tough one, but there are things you can do to keep them at bay.
Where They Come From?

       When you set up your tank there were no snails in it, so where did they come from? Snails usually arrive in the tank on plants, either as grown snails, or as packets of eggs. Sometimes they arrive with the fish, having been scooped up when the fish was netted. All it takes is one stray snail, or a few eggs, and you have a resident snail population in your tank.
How They Multiply?

Perhaps the most astonishing thing about snails is how easily they multiply. I've often heard the common, “but there was only one” comment. Truth be told, it literally only takes one snail, as most snails don't require a mate to reproduce. No need to find a snail matchmaking service, the lone snail simply fertilizes its own eggs and voila, a couple of weeks later it becomes a single parent. Lucky you!
        Furthermore, it is not unusual for snails to spend their day buried in the substrate, coming out only at night to forage for a meal. That cute little snail you saw on the glass probably has dozens if not hundreds of siblings hanging out under the gravel.


Snail species:
1- Ramshorn snail :  The Ramshorn Snail (Planorbis rebrum) has earned itself a bad name. A lot of planted aquarium hobbyists consider it to be a pest and try to irradicate them using many different methods. This snail can eat your plants, destroy your foreground glossostigma, eat the food meant for the shrimp while kicking the shrimp to the side, and many other irritating things. It may sound very bad but it can easily be prevented by not overfeeding.
Overfeeding is the number one cause of snail outbreaks. If you see a lot of snails in your tank then there is a high probability that you are overfeeding either your fish or shrimp. The Ramshorn Snail reproduces rapidly. It lays a clutch of eggs in a hard mucus. You can see a picture of an egg clutch at the bottom of the page. You can see these eggs on rocks, leaves, glass, and virtually any surface in the aquarium. Do not even attempt to remove them, you will drive yourself crazy. For every clutch you find there are at least 5 others you don't see.
Unfortunately there are products on the market that are meant specifically for killing snails. If you are keeping shrimp, crayfish, or any other invertebrates I highly recommend you do not use any chemicals in your aquarium with the objective of removing snails. You will most certainly kill your other invertebrates as well. Put the chemicals to the side and use the snails weakness to your advantage, that weakness being its slow movement.
You will not be able to find all of the snails in your aquarium by simply looking around. You will most likely rip your entire tank apart before you even get 10% of the population. There is one solution: let the snails come to you. This method has been used many times in the aquarium hobby and it works. Best of all it is extremely easy. Place a piece of cucumber at the bottom of the aquarium before you turn off the lights at night. Wake up the next morning about an hour before the lights come on and voila, the snails are sitting ducks.
There are some very beautiful looking Ramshorns though. There is a Blue Ramshorn, a Pink Ramshorn, and many other different colorations. Some invertebrate hobbyists enjoy keeping these different colored Ramshorns and breeding them.


 2- Malaysian livebearing  Snail : 
          Malaysian Trumpet Snails may be called Malaysian Burrowing Snails, Malaysian Live Bearing Snails, Malaysian Sails, MTS, Trumpet Snails, or simply Trumpets.
As a pet: Malaysian Trumpet Snails can make interesting pets for some aquarists. Under the right conditions, Trumpet Snails can be an asset to an aquatic environment. This is especially true in tanks with live plants. Malaysian Trumpet Snails are so common pet stores may throw a few in for free with another purchase. If purchasing Trumpet Snails, look for specimens that appear to be moving or affixed to hard surfaces. Avoid snails that are lying motionless or upside-down on the tank bottom. Also avoid purchasing snails kept in display tanks with dead, dying or diseased tank mates.
As a pest: To some hobbyists, Malaysian Trumpet Snails are an unwanted, invasive and annoying pest. They are quick to reproduce and their numbers can increase in no time. Malaysian Trumpet Snails can find their way into tanks inadvertently, most often as hitch hikers catching a ride on live plants. Whether Malaysian Trumpet Snails are considered pet or pest depends on each individual hobbyist and the tank they are trying to keep.


   Algae Problem : 
- Algae (Plural: Algae / Singular: Algae or Alga):
         It is the bane of every aquarium owner. Algae grows in every healthy aquarium, no matter how well, or how often the tank is cleaned. There is absolutely no safe way to completely prevent or stop the growth of algae. Once it starts to grow in an aquarium, it does so very rapidly. A small patch of algae can triple in size in a few days. When one of our clients calls and informs us that their aquarium is "dirty", we know they’re referring to algae growth on the tank, or on the gravel or decorations.
- Types of Algae
          There are many types of algae. There are also a few organisms that look like algae but are not algae at all. In a healthy aquarium, the algae will be green, and if left alone, will grow hair-like in appearance. Algae that is red or brown may indicate a water quality problem, such as high dissolved nitrate or phosphate levels in the water. Red and brown algae are also common in new tanks, when the aquarium is not yet ecologically balanced. These types of algae are also quite common in saltwater fish-only tanks when the coral decorations are cleaned on a regular basis. 
         The small round green "dots" that form on the sides of a tank are not algae. These are actually populations of Diatoms, microscopic animals that secrete a hard calcium shell on which green algae grows. This type of "algae" is the most difficult to remove. 
          An aquarium may occasionally break out with an infestation of cyanobacteria, a slimy growth that grows more rapidly than algae. It may be green, blue, black or red in color. Unlike algae, cyanobacteria is extremely easy to remove but very difficult to control. Even if every bit is removed, it can quickly grow back in only a few days. Cyanobacteria thrives in well-lit aquariums that have excessive levels of phosphate in the water. Cyanobacteria can also plague marine aquariums in which the coral is cleaned frequently. In order to bring cyanobacteria under control, the aquarium must be cleaned thoroughly. The amount of light the tank receives is dramatically reduced for several weeks. An organic chemical such as Boyd's Chemi Clean is also added to the water to inhibit the growth of cyanobacteria. Several treatments may be necessary before the problem is brought under control.


 What is Algae and How Do You Get Rid of It?

           Although it’s rather unattractive, algae is not "dirt", but a primitive form of plant-like life. Green and some brown algae growth is normal and natural and occurs in nearly all aquariums. Like plants, all species of algae need light, water and nutrients to grow. Since an aquarium provides the water, we’re left with two factors that you can control to prevent the rapid accumulation of algae. These are: the amount of light the aquarium receives; and the levels of nutrients dissolved in the water. There are also tap water pretreatment, filtration and sterilization methods that can tremendously reduce the growth rate and accumulation of algae.

            Limiting the light that the aquarium receives is the most important factor in controlling algae growth. If an aquarium is near a window, algae will grow faster, even if the aquarium does not receive direct sunlight. Leaving the aquarium lights on for more than eight hours a day can also cause rapid algae growth. We suggest that the aquarium be placed as far away from a window as possible. If an aquarium must be placed near or facing a window, blinds or drapery should be kept closed during the day. The aquarium lights should not be on for more than ten hours a day. Fish require no less than six hours of light every day in order to manufacture vitamin D. They also must have consistent lighting, with the lights coming on and going off at the same times every day.
             We recommend that the tank lights be controlled by a timer. It is ok to adjust the aquarium lighting to coincide with your schedule, so you can enjoy the aquarium when you’re home, provided the lighting time period (photoperiod) is always consistent. If the light timer is set to come on in the afternoon, and go out late at night, the amount of ambient daylight the aquarium receives should be limited by closing blinds or drapes during the day. The light timer should be set to come on an hour before you get home, and to go off an hour after you go to bed. The aquarium lights should never be set to come on and off more than once a day. Please remember that fish should be fed twice a day. Fish will not feed in a dark aquarium. If the lights are set for an afternoon/evening cycle, feed the fish once when you get home, and once again before you retire for the evening.

Like any plant, algae require food to survive. The three main nutrients that algae need are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. In an aquarium, these nutrients come from fish waste, uneaten food, the metabolism of beneficial bacteria, and the decay of other organics such as plant debris or even dead algae. There is also a surprisingly high amount of phosphorus in our tap water. You control the accumulation of nitrogen when you perform a water change. Phosphates may be controlled by using phosphate-removal media in an external filter or by using reverse osmosis water for the aquarium.
Cleaner Tanks Grow Algae Faster!
This is a difficult concept to understand. It is important to remember that algae growth is a natural, normal process in any aquarium. All aquariums grow algae in one form or another. Some algae grows naturally in all ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. If a section of the ocean floor is swept completely clean of life by a hurricane, the first organism to start growing back is algae. 

When you clean your aquarium and all of the decorations thoroughly, you leave no algae behind. In this bright, squeaky-clean environment, algae grows back more rapidly than it would if you left a small amount of algae somewhere in the tank. This is especially true in saltwater aquariums, where the bright white coral and gravel reflect more light, causing algae to grow faster. The reason for this is that if there is no algae left in the tank, there is no competition for nutrients that the algae feeds on. If you leave a few rocks or pieces of coral in a tank with a good growth of algae on them, that algae will consume nutrients in the water, which helps to control new growth. 

The best way to illustrate this principle is to take a look at the two types of aquariums that are rarely plagued with heavy algae growth. These are: freshwater aquariums that are well populated with live plants; and saltwater live-coral reef aquariums. In these aquariums, the plants in freshwater tanks, and the photosynthetic corals, anemones, and other sessile invertebrates in reef tanks, compete with algae for light and nutrients. As algae is a relatively primitive organism, it doesn’t stand a chance when competing against the more advanced plants or photosynthetic corals in these types of aquariums. It is actually better for your aquarium to allow some algae to exist somewhere in the tank, especially if your aquarium has chronic algae problems.
What About Algae-Eating Animals?

In freshwater aquariums there are a few species of algae-eating fish and snails that can help to keep algae under control. Freshwater snails can breed and over-populate a tank, creating more of a nuisance than the algae they’re supposed to eat. The algae-eating fish do not feed exclusively on algae, and if well-fed, will ignore the algae growing in your tank. However, keeping one snail and/or a few small Plecostomus species of fish may help to control algae in-between our maintenance visits.

There are very few fish available for marine aquariums that will eat the algae that grows in an aquarium. Certain tangs, parrotfish, and blennies will graze on some of the algae, but not effectively enough to keep the tank clean. There are quite a few marine invertebrates such as certain crabs, hermit crabs, snails and sea urchins that can eat a lot of algae. Unfortunately, few of these invertebrates can be kept safely in the average saltwater fish-only tank. These animals are the natural prey of many desirable saltwater fish, and your fish would willingly eat many of these expensive "snacks" if given the opportunity. These invertebrates can be kept in a marine living-coral reef aquarium, where the fish are smaller omnivorous species that will leave them alone.


   The most widely spread types of Algae 


 Our Wonderful Tap Water (or Things You Don’t Want to Know)
Almost all municipal water treatment facilities treat our tap water to kill algae, bacteria and protozoa before it is filtered and delivered to our faucets. Not all of the chemicals that are used get filtered out. On any given day, our tap water may contain fluoride, iodine, chlorine, chloramines, and traces of potassium permanganate, magnesium sulfate, nickel sulfate, copper sulfate, various heavy metal-nitrate complexes, as well as pollutants such as lead, PCB, mercury, and silver nitrate. Yummy! 

More of these chemicals are used during the fall and spring when temperature changes cause a phenomenon called "Biannual Turnover". Temperature fluctuations cause the water at the bottom of lakes to rise, carrying silt and anaerobic material up into the water collected for our use. All of the chemicals used in tap water can be toxic to fish. 

Although a good portion of our municipal plumbing systems have been modernized, nearly all of them still have old lead pipes in-line which can create deadly high-lead levels in our drinking water. The cost of replacing these pipes is astronomical, so another solution was found. Several years ago, water treatment plants started introducing a phosphorus compound into our tap water which binds to the lead in the pipes and coats them so that lead does not get into our water. Unfortunately, this has had the bad side-effect of creating rather high levels of phosphates in tap water. We have tested levels of over 0.50 parts per million in our tap water. Our test kits only measure up to 0.10 ppm, and we have had to dilute our samples by as much as ten times to achieve accurate readings! This high level of phosphates in the tap water has been a major cause of rapid algae growth in aquaria for the last few years. We lower these levels considerably by using phosphate-removal filter media in your external filter. However, every time you change the water, you actually add more phosphates to the aquarium. If the city uses more phosphorus from time to time, the algae can grow back almost immediately after your aquarium is cleaned.
- Equipment and Methods to Control Algae

Aquarium Professionals Group has installed many state-of-the-art aquarium systems which use various devices designed to prevent the growth of algae. 
Equipment which can be used are ultraviolet sterilizers and ozonators. Contact Aquarium Professionals Group to see if one of these devices will hlp control your algae problem.
The use of reverse osmosis or deionized water for the aquarium will prevent any excess phosphates or other chemicals from getting in the aquarium, thereby helping to control algae. Aquarium Professionals Group can either bring deionized water to use in your aquarium at a charge per gallon, or we can install a reverse osmosis system in your home, an investment which will pay for itself in reduced costs.
Don’t overfeed your aquarium. Follow our recommendations in the article on feeding. 
If a fish dies, remove it immediately. Decaying matter creates high levels of nutrients in the water, causing rapid algae growth. 
Have us place one or several pieces of live rock that is never cleaned in your marine fish-only tank. Allowing a controlled amount of algae to exist in the tank will provide competition for new algae growth. 
If you do not already have an external canister filter on your aquarium, have us install one. By using large quantities of chemical removal material in these filters, you can help prevent algae growth. 
Have us install an ultraviolet sterilizer and/or an ozonizer on the tank. Besides controlling parasites in the water, these devices also kill algae cells in the water before they can grow in your tank. 


The suker fishes is a god option to get rid of the algae , but not all the agae , However many fishes eating algae availabe  for this mission .
Below :  the apple snail it is also a good creatures and can simply handle and collect it from the tank but be careful and notice any behavior to eat the plants instead of algae .


Apple  snail have unusual breathing tube ! 


3-  Physa snails : is less harm like other but will damage the view of the aquarium if they are too much in the tank ..
Common Names: Bladder snail, Tadpole snail
Scientific Name: Physa acuta 
Maximum Size: Maximum of 1/2” (1 to 2 cm)
Temperature Range: 20°C to 28°C They can live in tropical and coldwater tanks. I find that they will lay more eggs in tropical aquaria.
Water Parameters: These snails prefer alkaline water with a calcium supplement or other source of calcium added/present. If these two elements are not correct then their shells may start to dissolve resulting in eventual death of the snail.
Ease of Keeping: These snails are extremely easy to keep and can be kept in aquaria of 5 litres or less (snail only tank). These snails are generally introduced to the aquaria as pest snails (introduced as eggs/live snails on plants) although they can be beneficial to the aquarium.
Behaviour: These snails can have a lot of character. They can be regularly seen sitting on the shell of other snails ‘hitching a lift’. In still water conditions, they will also glide underneath the water surface.
Feeding: The snails will feed on a variety of algae/vegetable matter. The snails will enjoy a slice of cucumber (waited down) and left overnight and also algae supplements (commonly known as algae tabs). I have found that five of these snails will easily clear a medium sized rock of algae in less than 48 hours.
There are many sources on the internet that say different things about whether bladder/tadpole will eat live plants. As their reputation as a pest snail suggests, they will eat some live plants, but not all.
Ease of Breeding: These snails are extremely easy to breed and will do so in the aquarium without any attention/special conditions.
Sexing the Snail: These snails are hermaphrodites and therefore carry both male and female organs.
Breeding: These snails will breed more if the aquarium is overfed. These snails will lay eggs on any hard surface and the baby snails will develop inside the egg. They will then hatch between 48 and 168 hours after being layed. Eggs are small jelly like spheres no greater than 1mm in diameter. The developing snail should be visible inside the eggs as a small white dot.
Other Information: If this snail becomes a pest then this may be due to overfeeding. Reduce the amount of food being fed and the snails should reduce the amount of eggs they lay.
The most reliable way of eliminating these snails is to invest in a snail trap. This is then placed in the bottom of the aquarium with some cucumber/algae tablets inside and left overnight. If this process is regularly repeated then these snails can be virtually eliminated.


Above Ramshorn snails and physa snails in the same tank.. 
 physa snails can be useful more than harmful , but need to notice it behavior ..


Controlling Snails : 

Even though the snail has the advantage of reproducing quickly, and is able to easily hide, you can still win this battle. All you have to do is use your superior brainpower. Snails can be lured out by simply clipping a lettuce leaf to the glass before you go to bed. In the morning there will be a whole family of snails feasting on the lettuce, which you will scoop out of the tank and dispose of. You won't eliminate every snail that way, but you can keep their numbers under control.
Another option is to put snail-eating fish in your tank. Any respectable Clown or Yo-Yo Loach would give their right fin for a snail dinner. They will sift through the gravel, sucking any snail they find right out of its shell. Loaches will even dive under the substrate in their snail hunting quest. Labyrinth fish, such as Bettas and Gouramis, will also eat snails. However, they are not as adept at tracking them down in their home under the gravel.
Lastly, remember the equation, less food = less snails. Reduce the amount of food your fish are given, and there will not be as much leftover for the snails.

Obviously the best way avoid snail problems is to never let them in the tank in the first place. When you purchase a fish, make sure nothing that is in the bag (including the water) is dumped into the tank. If you purchase live plants, treat them before adding them to the tank. - Plant soaking options include:
-Alum – Prepare soak using one gallon of water and two tablespoon of alum. Soak plants for two to three days, then rinse well before planting in tank.
-Bleach – Prepare soaking solution using one gallon of water and a cup and a half of bleach. Soak plants for five minutes, then soak for another five minutes in plain water with a de-chlorinating agent, and rinse well. Be aware that fragile plants may be damaged by bleach solutions. However, bleach is the most effective way to kill snails and eggs.
-Potassium Permanganate – Prepare soaking solution using one gallon of water and a half tablespoon of potassium permanganate. Soak for fifteen minutes, then rinse well before planting in tank.
Remember that having a few snails in your aquarium isn't necessarily a bad thing, as they eat algae and eliminate food that isn't eaten by the fish. As long as you keep them at bay, they can work in your favor.


To the right is a trap for snail which can come in but not to come out.
Above a dish with piece of cucumber can do good job to collect the snails.. or as below only piece of vegetable can be enough to get more snails



 Plants and it's problem : 
Cultivating a thriving planted tank can be a very rewarding experience but many aquarium hobbyists underestimate the time and dedication it takes to do it right. Not only do you need to provide your live plants with plenty of light and space to grow, but you also need to make sure they receive adequate nutrients. Like aquarium fish, live plants cannot thrive unless all of their basic needs are met. Unfortunately, many aquarium hobbyists do not understand these basic needs and, thus, they end up experiencing problems with keeping their plants alive.
If you hope to cultivate a thriving tank it would be beneficial to familiarize yourself with these common problems so you will be able to avoid them. In the event that you do experience one of these issues in your tank, you will be well-equipped to handle it properly. In this article you will receive an overview of some of the most common problems with freshwater aquarium plants and tips for remedying them.
 - Plant Leaves Turning Yellow:
Live aquarium plants come in a variety of colors but the most common color is green – if the plants in your tank begin to turn yellow, it could be a sign that there is a problem with the conditions in your tank. As mentioned earlier, plants are photosynthetic organisms that utilize light as an energy source to facilitate biological processes. Without adequate lighting, live aquarium plants will fail to thrive and they may even begin turning yellow. Novice aquarium hobbyists often underestimate the lighting requirements for aquarium plants and they find that, after introducing the plants to their tank, the leaves begin to turn yellow because their previous environment was well-lit.


If your plants are turning yellow, another possibility is that the plants in your tank are not receiving enough nutrients to facilitate healthy growth. If you plan to keep more than one or two live plants in your tank you should definitely consider using some kind of fertilizer under your substrate to provide nutrients for your plants. If you only have a few plants, you could try using root fertilizer plants to stimulate healthy growth. The most commonly recommended substrate to use with planted tanks is Eco-Complete. Not only does this substrate contain more than 25 minerals that live plants need to survive, but it also contains live beneficial bacteria to help turn fish waste and uneaten fish food into usable food for plants.


- Problems with Growth Rate : 

When it comes to problems with the growth rate of aquarium plants there are two possibilities – the plants are either growing too slowly or too quickly. The most common of these problems is slow growth rate and it is often due to a lack of adequate lighting, nutrients or carbon dioxide (CO2) – these are the three things aquarium plants need in order to thrive. Examine the setup you have in your tank to determine which of these three factors might be the issue. Does your lighting system provide at least 3 to 5 watts per gallon of full-spectrum light? Do you have a layer of fertilizer in place under your aquarium substrate? What is the CO2 level in your tank? Installing extra lighting or fertilizer are both fairly easy but increasing the CO2level in your tank may involve the use of a CO2 injector.


On the other side of the spectrum is the issue regarding aquarium plants growing too quickly. If you have too many plants in your tank or if you stocked your tank with fast-growing species, it may not be long before they begin to take over. Having a large number of plants in your tank isn’t necessarily a bad thing because it will keep the oxygen levels in your tank high, but it could eventually detract from the tank’s appearance and may limit free-swimming space for your fish. To control the growth of your aquarium plants, try pruning them back once in a while – you can either discard the cuttings or transplant them elsewhere in the tank. Consider replacing fast-growing species with slow-growing species or introduce a few fish that tend to feed on aquarium plants. You should also check your tank setup to determine whether your lighting may be more intense than necessary. You may also want to cut back on the amount of food you are offering your fish because uneaten fish food will simply accumulate at the bottom of the tank and provide nutrients to fuel excess plant growth.


- Black Algae Covering Plants
Many aquarium hobbyists are faced with the problem of their plant leaves turning black, but some fail to realize that the problem may not be with the plants themselves – it may be that dark growths of algae have covered the plant leaves rather than the leaves themselves turning black. In cases like this, the problem is often caused by an excess of phosphates in the tank. The three nutrients essential for plant growth are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium – if one or more of these nutrients is available in excess, it could cause problems.
In the case of excess phosphates, photosynthesis may occur at a faster rate than usual which could contribute to excess algae growth. High phosphate levels are common in tanks that are poorly maintained, especially when aquarium lighting levels are kept too low. The key to dealing with this issue is to perform a large water change and to establish then keep a routine maintenance schedule. Replace your filter media on a monthly basis and replace 15% to 20% of your tank volume once a week. This should help to keep your phosphate levels under control, thus limiting the growth of algae in your tank and on your live plants.


-Holes in the Leaves

If your plants start to develop small holes in the leaves that eventually progress to the total disintegration of the plant, you could be dealing with a case of Crypt rot. This disease primarily affects plants belonging to the Cryptocoryne genus, hence the name Crypt rot. In many cases, this disease develops when water parameters in the tank change too quickly – these plants do not do well with sudden changes in temperature, lighting, or water chemistry. Even if your plants seem to die back completely, as long as the roots remain healthy the plants will come back once conditions in the tank stabilize. To encourage this, perform regular water changes to maintain high water quality in your tank and try to keep the water parameters as stable as possible. If you do these things, your plants should eventually grow back.


-Overview of Plant Problems

In many cases, problems with aquarium plants are easy to diagnose – use the chart below to quickly diagnose whatever problems you are experiencing in your tank:




A planted tank is not significantly different from a standard freshwater tank but there are a few things you need to be aware of if you want to succeed. Keep in mind that plants are photosynthetic organisms which means they require light as an energy source to survive. Without adequate lighting and proper nutrients, your live plants will never thrive. Do yourself and your fish a favor by setting up your planted tank properly the first time, then you will be less likely to experience these common issues. 


ِAbove : plant suffer from high Phosphate 
Left : Less Manganese 


For More information about How to recognize an aquarium plant deficiency visit this site :


 Introduction to Fertilizers for a Planted Tank: 
 When aquatic plants are growing well, they will consume the nutrients that are available in the water. These nutrients fall into two categories: Macronutrients and Micronutrients. Macronutrients are those which the plants needs in large amounts. Micronutrients are needed in very small amounts. Micronutrients are also known as trace elements.
A quick side-note about requirements for plants: In addition to the macronutrients and micronutrients, plants also need CO2 and light in order to grow. In fact, CO2 and light are MORE important than any of the nutrients. Plants that do not receive enough light will just turn brown and die. No amount of fertilizer will help in that situation. But most beginners who add live plants to their tanks will attempt to improve the plant growth by adding some fertilizers, since it's much easier to add some liquid from a bottle than it is to add more lighting to an aquarium. Don't repeat this mistake. The only thing you will grow is more algae!
Macronutrients and Micronutrients
The Macronutrients consist primarily of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium. These nutrients are all needed for plants to grow. In an inhabited aquarium, fish food and fish waste will provide some of each of these.
As you hopefully know, fish produce ammonia as waste. And as you hopefully know, bio-filter bacteria in the aquarium convert ammonia into nitrite, and other bio-filter bacteria convert the nitrite into nitrate. All three of these ( ammonia, nitrite and nitrate) are forms of nitrogen, and all can be used by plants. In most non-planted or lightly planted tanks, the nitrate level will slowly rise, and the aquarist must do water changes to lower the nitrate level. Nitrate levels over 20ppm can be harmful to fish.
In the case of a heavily planted tank, with lots of fast growing plants, it's possible for the plants to completely consume all the nitrogen produced in the tank. In that case, the addition of nitrate is needed to keep the plants growing happily.
In a well lit tank, excess phosphorus (phosphates) can lead to serious algae problems, so extra phosphate is almost never added. And most fish foods contain sizable amounts of phosphorus, so the plants will most likely be able to get as much as they need.
Potassium is an important macronutrient, and it is commonly in short supply in an aquarium. The amount of potassium from food and waste is often much less than the amounts of nitrogen or phosphorus. So adding potassium is often a good idea.
There are several commercial aquarium plant additives that contain potassium. You can also obtain Potassium Sulfate (K2SO4) or Potassium Chloride (KCl) from a gardening store as a source. K2SO4 is often referred to as "Sulfate of Potash", and KCl is referred to as Muriate of Potash. I only recently (in the past couple months) starting adding potassium, and the improvement in plant growth and health has been amazing.
There are main micronutrients. They include Boron, Calcium, Chloride, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Sulfur, Zinc. These nutrients are often found in small amounts in tap water, and in low growth conditions, it isn't necessary to suppliment them. But with improved plant growth, these nutrients will be quickly depleted from the water, and plants will suffer. For the Micronutrients, there are many commercially available fertilziers. My favorite of them is Tropica Master Grow (TMG). It contains iron, manganese, magnesium, sulfur, boron, zinc, and molybdenum (spelling?). Others are available from Seachem (Flourish), and Dupla (Dupla drops). Alternatively, many people make their own. This is known as PMDD (Poor mans dosing drops). The starting point for PMDD is a trace element mixture. I use one called Microplex. Another common one is Plantex CSM. These are often available from Hygroponics suppliers. More info on PMDD is available at: The Krib Regardless of what you use for micronutrients, these are typically added every few days. This is important because the iron and other elements will not remain available in the tank water for more than a few days. Dosing of micronutrients is commonly done based on the Iron level. The mixtures are all created so that by adding the right level of Iron, then the other elements will be present in the proper amounts.


 Forms of Fertlizer
There are two commonly used forms of fertilizer for the aquarium: Substrate fertlizers and liquid fertilziers. The substrate fertlizers are those which are inserted in some solid form into the substrate. The liquid fertilizers are added directly into the tank water.
Substrate Fertilizers
One of the benefits of substrate fertilizers over liquid fertilizers is that when properly used, the substrate fertilizers are only available to plant roots. Since algae doesn't have roots, it can't get to the nutrients buried in the substrate.
Substrate fertilizers come in many different forms:


- There is a powdered substrate additive known as laterite that can be mixed with the lower level of gravel to provide a source of iron that plant roots can get to. It's important not to use too much laterite, and not to use it in the upper layer of the substrate, or it will leak into the water, and cause VERY high iron levels, which will lead to algae problems.
- Another common substrate fertilizer comes in tablets or sticks. These "plant tabs" or sticks are sold specifically foraquarium plants, "PlanTabbs", Seachem's Flourish Tabs, and Tetra's Hilena Initial Sticks. These are normally intended to be placed every couple of inches through out the substrate. Some of these tabs provide iron, some provide macro nutrients.
- The last common substrate fertilizer is a "plant spike". These are actually sold for normal household plants, but certain varieties of them are especially useful for aquaticplants. These are sold in the gardening section of many stores. The most commonly used ones are "Jobe's Plant Food Spikes for Lush Ferns and Palms". This variety has a very low phosphate level, which is important, since an excess of phosphate will quickly lead to algae problems. The Fern and Palm sticks also contain very little urea, a toxic form of nitrogen. Other varieties of the plant spikes contain much more urea, to the point where enough might enter the water and could harm fish. These are solid "spikes" that get pushed into the substrate where their nutrients are available to plant roots, but not to algae in the water. These plant spikes provide macro-nutrients only. When using these, they should be used sparingly, only at the base of heavy root feeding plants. Do not insert these over the entire substrate.
  A several type of tablets which is popular with hobbyists to fertle the aquatic plants ..
Liquid Fertilizers
Liquid fertilizers are often an important source of nutrients foraquatic plants. Many aquatic plants have specially developed to be able to efficiently consume nutrients from the water. Some plants don't grow roots down into the substrate, and so their only source for nutrients is from the water. Most liquid fertilizers are intended to be added frequently, normally daily or weekly.
When using a DIY form of fertilizer, like PMDD, or when adding potassium or nitrogen from a non-commercial source, the dry ingredients are usually prepared into a liquid form. Dry powdered chemicals are mixed in measured quantities with a known amount of water. Then a small amount can be added as needed.


Special warning! : 
Some people have asked about using common householdfertilizers like miracle-gro in their planted aquarium. This is a bad idea, since most terrestial plant fertilziers contain high levels of phosphates. In additon, many of them contain their nitrogen in the form of urea, which is essentially ammonia. And in a tank that contains fish, urea or ammonia is toxic. I've tested miracle-grow in an uninhabited 10g tank, and adding just 5ml of the liquid to the 10g resulting in ammonia levels off the chart for my ammonia test. The same hold true for many hydroponics fertilziers. I would suggest that you never add any fertilziers to your tank unless you are sure you know what it contains.
 Aquarium PH,GH & KH Adjust : 
PH :  
pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance. pH is measured on a scale of 1-14 with 7 being neutral. Something with a pH lower than 7 is acidic. Something with a pH higher than 7 is basic. Water has a pH of 7 naturally, but the water you are using in your tank will be different because of the chemicals that are suspended or dissolved in the water. These chemicals fall into three categories: acids, bases, and buffers. Acids are chemicals that lower the pH, or make the water more acidic. Bases are chemicals that raise the pH of the water, or make it more basic (or alkaline). Buffers are chemicals that can 'tie up' acids or bases and keep the water at a specific pH. Different buffers will keep the pH at different values.
-What if I Do Want to Change the pH in My Aquarium?
If you decide you want to change the pH in your aquarium, and you are lucky, then your water will not contain any buffers. This makes changing the pH very easy. If you are lowering your pH, you add an acid to the water and as this acid neutralizes all the bases in the water, the water becomes neutral. As you add more acid to the water, the pH continues to drop and the water begins becoming acidic. You can continue this until the pH is where you want it.
However, if your water contains buffers, then things become more difficult. Again, if you are lowering the pH in the tank, you add an acid which needs to neutralize the bases that are in the water as above. However, even after the bases are neutralized, the water will maintain a high pH because of the buffers in the water. You will need to add enough of your acid to neutralize the buffer. However, usually, when you are overcoming a buffer in the water, by the time you have added enough acid to overcome the buffer, you will have enough acid in the water to cause a precipitous drop in pH.
Though almost all fish are very tolerant of a wide range of pH in the water they live and thrive in, sudden and/or drastic changes in pH, as those caused by overcoming a buffer in the water, are almost always harmful. Not only to your fish, but also to your plants and to your biological filter.
Now, remember, if you are changing the pH of the water, you will need to do this every time that you do awater change, and slight variations in the treatment of processing of the water you are using can make dramatic changes in the behavior of these buffers. Also, objects in the tank can also make a big difference in how the water is buffered. This means that you cannot, reliably, adjust the pH of your water before you put it in the tank, and this, in turn, means that if you are messing with the pH in your tank that you will have to subject your fish to this pH roller coaster every week when you do your weekly water change.
And all this for a pH change that probably isn't necessary!

- Why Isn't it Necessary to Change pH?

Remember, most fish will thrive in a wide pH range - usually from as low as a full point below their ideal pH to a full point above the ideal. Also, different fish have different ideal pH as a base for these ranges. Some fish prefer pH as low as 5.5 and others prefer their pH to be over 8.5! Remember, before you consider messing around with the pH of the water in your aquarium, there are several questions you need to have the answers to:
  • What is the ideal pH for each of the types of fish I am keeping?
  • What is the actual pH of the water I am keeping these fish in? Not just is it high or low, but what is the value on the pH scale from 1 to 14. Just knowing that the pH is above or below 7 really doesn't tell you very much.
  • Is the actual pH within the range for these fish? (Chances are that unless the water causes burns when you wash with it, that it is tolerable for almost any fish you could get.)
  • Is there actually a reason to adjust the pH, or am I just doing it because it seems like something to do?
  • Am I seeing any problems with my fish? Have I ensured that I am providing the necessary care for the fish including weekly 10-15% water changes, regular necessary filter maintenance, proper diet and feeding, correct temperature, correct salinity, and healthy tank population? Chances are, if you are seeing problems, that one of these tasks is not being completed, and it is the cause of the problem, and adjusting the pH will make things worse rather than better.


Quite possibly, the worst thing you could do to your fish tank is mess with the pH with chemicals. The pH is going to be buffered naturally to whatever it is coming out of the tap, and is very difficult to adjust safely. Adding chemicals to the water will very often leave you with an unstable system, constantly fluctuating and ready to plummet or skyrocket as soon as you put anything else (your hand, a fish bag from the pet store, adecoration or some fish food...) in the water. I would strongly discourage anyone from trying to mess with the pH of their aquarium water unless they really need to and they really understand chemical titrations.


Again, most fish can tolerate a wide range of pH, different fish preferring different pH, but thriving in a wide range and tolerating a wider range.
I strongly suggest that only experts with a good background in chemistry mess with pH, as any little mistake is asking for disaster. I have only been in this hobby since 1980 and would not consider myself sufficiently an expert to mess with pH using chemicals...
What Can I Do to Change the pH Slowly and Safely?
If you want to lower your pH safely, add a piece of wood to the tank as a decoration or add some peat to thefilter system, but be aware that this will stain the water yellow or brown for a couple of years. If you want to increase pH, add a sea shell or a coral skeleton. Remember, these will not give you immediate, overnight results, but they will introduce buffering agents to the water to help keep the pH more like you want it.


GH :
   Is the general hardness of the water. Humans can notice difference in water GH when they drink from the tap compared to filtered water. Tap water can be hard, which essentially means it is full of dissolved minerals. Soft water is at the other end of the spectrum and is devoid of minerals.
Fish species do have preference to hard or soft water. Generally most species will be tolerable to a range of hardness as long as it doesn't approach extremely soft or hard values. GH can be very important when attempting to breed fish or replicating natural habitats. Generally as a rule of thumb, the higher the pH the higher the GH. You will find that most fish species either prefer acidic and soft waters or alkaline and harder water.


Adjusting the GH
These are the basics for water chemistry but before you actually decide to go make any changes, realise that the fish may be just as happy as they are now and attempting the change the parameters is difficult and could potentially end in disaster. Think twice before attempting to adjust the water parameters in the aquarium.






KH - Carbonate Hardness
KH - Buffering capacity, temporary or carbonate hardness in the water.
Also known as 'total alkalinity' or 'acid-neutralizing capacity' (ANC) in some countries.
The ‘K’ in KH comes from the German word 'karbonate'. KH is a measure of bicarbonate (HCO3-) and carbonate (CO32-) ions that act as buffers in the water to prevent the pH dropping or changing sharply (especially at night if you have plants in the aquarium). One degree KH is equal to 17.9 mg/I (ppm) CaCO3. It's also measured in degrees. The degree symbol may be replaced with a d (ie. 2 dKH).
A common misconception is that KH is a part of GH and that KH cannot be higher than GH. There is no such correlation. In some areas, the water contains moresodium bicarbonate and/or potassium bicarbonate than total calcium and magnesium. In these areas, the KH is naturally higher than the GH. Furthermore, people using water softeners will most likely have a KH that is higher than the GH, as water softeners exchange sodium or potassium ions for calcium, magnesium, and other hard water minerals.
Low KH:
  • In tanks with a low KH value, say under 2-3d (35.7-53.6ppm), the respiration of the plants or animals at night (CO2 production) can cause large pH shifts which harm and eventually kill aquatic animals. This is called pH shock. It is due to lack of water buffering.
  • KH is consumed by nitrifying bacteria 24/7 so either your substrate generates more, you perform water changes to supplement it or you add chemicals to add KH to your aquarium as otherwise it causes a pH crash/shock.
Tip: get up just before the tank lights (or sun light) come on and measure the pH and observe the animals for stress. It may be substantially different than it is during the middle of the day.
Raising KH
If you live with soft water then you may need to raise it before you add aquatic animals to it. Measure the KH value and if it's less than 4d (71.4ppm) then add some of the items below to increase it.
  • Remember that KH always tends to go down over time (See old tank syndrome).
  • Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) (baking soda/bicarbonate of soda) is the usual KH additive of choice. It's cheap and easy to find and use. It will however raise pHthough due to the addition of the hydrogen.
  • Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) is another KH additive. It's cheap. But not so easy to find, it's a specialist food additive for people who don't want sodium in their food. It will however raise pH though due to the addition of the hydrogen. It dissolves much faster than the Potassium or Calcium carbonate powders.
  • Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) A known food additive. This adds carbonate without raising pH. The potassium is a bonus if you have a planted aquarium.
  • Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) This adds carbonate and calcium so GH and KH will increase. Used by gardeners as 'Lime'.


Reducing KH
The ions that make up KH can be removed by boiling the water. Boiling may also reduce GH slightly.
KH is also reduced by the action of nitrifying bacteria and by water surface agitation.
Please note that This water parameter is often ignored by many aquarists. But too low a KH can cause pH shock disease and death in aquatic animals.
Aquarium fish diseases
  Just like any pet, fish can get sick too.  Here are some of the more common illnesses, and how to treat the picture or layout below you will findout the most popular fish diseases among the hobbyists , 
 1- Fin Rot, Tail Rot : 
  • Disease Type: Bacterial (gram negative organism)
  • Cause / Organism:Aeromonas, Pseudomonas fluorescens, or Vibrio
Fin Rot is one of the most common, as well as most preventable, diseases in aquarium fish. Although it is caused by several types of bacteria and often occurs concurrently with other diseases, the root cause of Fin Rot is always environmental in nature.
Fish stress is also a contributing factor in Fin Rot. When fish are moved, subjected to overcrowding, or coupled with aggressive fish that chase and nip at their fins, they are more susceptible to Fin Rot.
Fin Rot can be difficult to cure, particularly in the more advanced stages. If left untreated, it will eventually kill the diseased fish and infect all the other fish in the tank as well.
  • Fin edges turn white
  • Fins fray
  • Bases of fins inflamed
  • Entire fin may rot away
 In the early stages of Fin Rot the edges of the fins will discolor, appearing milky colored on the edges. Often this change is so subtle that it goes unnoticed until fraying of the fins or tail begins. As the infection spreads, small pieces of the fins die and begin to fall off, leaving a ragged edge. Over time the fins become shorter and shorter as dead flesh continues to slough off the affected fins. The affected area may become red and inflamed; with bloody patches appearing as more tissue is eaten away. It is common for secondary fungal infections to develop along the raw edges of the fins. 


It is not unusual forColumnaris (cotton-wool) to also be present at the same time as Fin Rot, as occur from environmental factors.
  • Correct root cause
  • Water change
  • Treat with antibiotics
  • Addition of aquarium salt
Fin rot is caused by one of several gram negative bacteria. Several antibiotics are effective; however the root cause must be addressed as well to ensure the disease doesn’t return.
The disease occurs when the fish become stressed by something in the environment. The most common causes of Fin Rot are poor water quality and improperly low water temperature. Overcrowding the tank, feeding outdated food or overfeeding, and moving or handling the fish can also cause stress leading to Fin Rot.
Treatment should include a water change, and careful examination of the aquarium conditions. If there is food debris, vacuum the gravel and take care to avoid overfeeding in the future. Start putting dates on your fish food, as it loses the vitamin content fairly quickly after it is opened. Feeding fish fresh, high quality food, in smaller quantities is far better than frequent large feedings of stale foods.
Check the pH and water temperature of the water, and make sure it is appropriate for your fish. Incorrect pH is very stressful for fish, and can lead to disease. Low water temperatures, particularly in fish with long flowing fins, can often trigger Fin Rot.
Once the root cause is corrected, antibiotics will usually cure the disease itself. Treatment with a drug that is effective against gram negative organisms is recommended. The drugs Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline, and Tetracycline, are good choices. Always treat according to manufacturer’s instructions, as the preparations can vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. It is particularly important to continue treatment for the length of time recommended, as ending treatment too soon can result in a re-occurrence of the infection.
The use of aquarium salt will benefit livebearing fish, but should be avoided in fish such as scaleless catfish, as they are quite sensitive to salt.
  • Maintain good water quality
  • Perform regular tank maintenance
  • Keep proper water parameters
  • Feed fresh food in small amounts
  • Feed fresh food in small amounts
 The best prevention against Fin Rot is good aquarium maintenance. Change the water regularly, vacuum the gravel, and monitor the water chemistry by having a regular testingschedule, and documenting the results. This will allow you to quickly notice water chemistry changes that occur over time, giving you a chance to correct problems before they become serious. Do not overcrowd the tank, and watch for signs of fighting between fish.
When feeding, keep the volume low. Overfeeding is the most common mistake made by all fish owners, and contributes to poor water quality. Be sure to use fresh foods. If the can has been open for half a year, it has lost most of its nutritional value. Purchase food in small enough containers that it can be used in one to two months.
Take care when choosing tank mates for fish that have long flowing fins, as fin nipping leaves fish more susceptible to Fin Rot. It is also important to keep water temperatures warm enough for fish with long fins, as low water temperatures will promote Fin Rot in long finned species of fish.
 2- Fin haemorrhaging : A non too commonly found illness, Simply it is  mean bleeding from fins 
 3-  Lymphosystis  : Lymphocystis is a common viral disease of freshwater and saltwater fish. 
   Aquarists often come across this virus when their fish are stressed such as when put into a new environment and the virus is able to grow.
The fish starts growing small white pin-prick like growths on their fins or skin and this is often mistaken for Ich/Ick (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis) in the early stages. It soon clumps together to form a cauliflower-like growth on the skin, mouth, fins, and occasional gills. Lesions at the base of the dorsal fin are common among freshwater species of Central American origin, most notably Herichthys carpentis & inside the mouth of Herichthys cyanoguttatus & Geophagus steindachneri. On the tail fin of Koi, Carps, & US native sunfish (Lepomis sp.) On the side flanks of Walleye, Sauger & Flounder. On random head and/or tail areas of common goldfish, and oranda variants. This virus appears to present itself as a lesion(s) at differing locations depending on the species of fish being attacked, often complicating initial diagnosis.
Lymphocystis does show some host-specificity, i.e., each strain (or species) of lymphocystis can infect only its primary host fish, or some additional closely related, fish.
There is no known cure for this virus, though a privately owned fish research & breeding facility near Gainesville, Florida USA has reportedly been able to suppress the virus into remission using the human antiviral "Acyclovir" at the rate of 200 mg per 10 US gallons for 2 days. Otherwise, some aquarists recommend surgery to remove the affected area if it is very serious, followed by an antibiotic bath treatment to prevent a secondary bacterial infection of the open wounds.
Eventually the growths inhibit the fish's ability to swim, breathe or eat, and secondary bacterial infections usually kills the fish.
Usually the best cure is to simply give the fish a stress free life, a weekly bacteria treatment and the virus will slowly subside and the fins will repair themselves. This can take many months. Like most viral infections, even in humans, the first outbreaks are the most serious, whilst the immune system "learns" how to suppress it, the outbreaks become less severe over time assuming the organism survives the initial outbreaks.
Different photos for the Lymphosystis .
4- Body Flukes : Gyrodactylus is a broad group of parasites commonly called "Flukes". These are in fact skin or gill flukes, which attach themselves to the skin or gills of the fish, and can cause a great deal of damage.
  This very broad group of parasites is widely distributed and attacks many species of tropical fish kept in aquaria. For some reason Labyrinth fish do not appear to be often affected, and some authors claim that darker colored fish, are attacked less frequently, although this is not the writers experience. 
As with almost all the common infestations, less than ideal environmental conditions such as poor water quality, overcrowding, stress by incompatible species etc, will create the conditions that may lead to an explosive & damaging outbreaks. The odd parasite is often present, & appears under good conditions, to remain dormant. Once however stress is caused by any factor an outbreak becomes almost inevitable & remedial action is imperative.
These worms, as in fact they are, obtain nourishment by "eating" skin fragments as well as the sucking the blood of the victim which contributes to the pale appearance in chronic infestations.
The Hobbyist should suspect the presence of these parasites if he/she observes the natural colors of the fish appeared to have faded, this is often concurrent with a clamping of the fins, or a folded appearance . Although in Gyrodactylus the infestation is more typically found on the skin, it often will manifest itself by attacking the gills. The parasite is about .75 mm long and has at its anterior portion a sucker which has two central large hooks, surrounded by some sixteen smaller hooks for attaching itself to its host.
Gyrodactylus belongs to Phylum Platyhelminthes which are unsegmented flat worms, & the Class or sub-division they belong to is Trematoda. This Class is again divided into 2 divisions viz. Monogenea & Digenea. Gyrodactylus belongs to the Monogenea, as it has only the need for one host, unlike the Digenea, which must have an intermediate host to complete the life cycle.
There are several varieties of Gyrodactylus , possibly the most common is G.elegans, others are G. medius, G. gracilis, but there are many more. All however have a similar life cycle, & cause for the most part identical symptoms. It is not therefore necessary for the Aquarist to concern himself with the species identification.
It is worthy of note however that there are salt water forms of this parasite viz. G.salaris as well as others, & these can & do cause major problems form time to time in Salmon & other culture.
The sizes of the different forms vary just a little, from a low of about .3 mm, to a high of around .8mm. In some cases in early infestation they can be observed with the naked eye on the skin of the fish, but as the outbreak "deepens" the fish puts out massive amounts of slime, in a vain attempt to neutralize the parasite, and this covers the organisms so that it is hard to see them individually.
A smear with something like a Q -Tip rubbed gently over the body of the fish, (holding same carefully but gently in a wet net), then applying the smear to a clean microscope slide, should enable the user, even with a good magnifying glass, in the event that a microscope is not available, to make a certain diagnosis.
Typical signs of infection. Gyrodactylus & related species.
Less than optimum water quality, such as a lowering of the pH level, or high Nitrate or Phosphate readings can lead to an outbreak, stress caused by incompatible fish can also cause an outbreak.


Fish will appear lethargic, and swimming will become intermittent as the fish will tire very easily. Breathing at the surface, or just stationary "hanging" at the surface will be observed, as the fish try's to obtain sufficient oxygen when the gills are badly infested.


-Fins : 
Fins can become clamped and/or ragged . Often small spots of blood may be observed at the base of the fins..


Lesions may become apparent on the body as well as excessive mucous. Colors of the fish become "faded" in appearance.


Gills will usually become protuberant and usually are paler than normal. Excess slime can easily be observed.


Areas of hemorrhaging can be observed as well as ulcers, which typically have a circular shape. A slime can be observed over the body in advanced cases.

A scraping of the skin or gills will invariably show signs of the flukes, which will confirm the suspected infection. Be aware that secondary bacterial infection is very usual due to the protective epithelial layers of the skin etc, being adversely impacted.


-Life cycle: 
The species multiply by sexual viviparous multiplication, but there is evidence that a form of parthenogenetic reproduction can take place inside the mature parasite, and even within the "daughter" cell. The term given to this rather unusual reproduction method is called "paedogenesis". Although the parasite only gives "birth" to a single worm at a time, the gestation rate is so high that in a single month, under ideal conditions for the parasite as many as one million young can be produced. In this lies the danger that an outbreak presents, as far less than this number will cause massive mortality in the average Aquarium.

The newly born parasites can creep about on the skin of the host fish, or may search out a new host thus spreading the infestation. They must find a new host rather quickly or they will die, and this gives the Aquarist good opportunities to attack the problem, which if done quickly and correctly can have an excellent outcome.


In most cases a cure is almost always possible and the Aquarist should be aware of what to look for. Assuming that the problem is identified as a Gyrodactylus species that is causing the problem take remedial action as detailed below. If this is done, then losses can be and should be minimal. However if the problem is not discovered, until it has severely progressed, then heavy losses will almost certainly ensue, as if the gills of the fish are badly damaged, or heavy necrosis of the skin takes place, the damage is often irreparable . It should be noted, that as in all parasitic infestations that cause necrotic damage, that secondary infection by bacteria and/or fungus may well occur. One author has suggested that the parasites themselves may carry the infectious bacterium from fish to fish.

 Treatments : 
There are numerous gill fluke treatments available that are added to the water. However their eggs are hardy and most treatments only attack the young newly hatched flukes so several treatments are often needed over several weeks.
1- The use of Formalin-MS. Use 20 drops of Formalin-MS per gallon of water (or 1 teaspoon per 9 gallons), preferably in a separate quarantine tank, for a maximum of 50 minutes. If fish show signs of distress stop the treatment. Alternatively Formalin-MS can be used as an extended treatment in the aquarium itself at a dosage of 2 drops of Formalin-MS per gallon of water (or 1 teaspoon per 90 gallons). Perform a 25% water change after 3 days and replace carbon filtration.
2- Acriflavine-MS is also very effective & is used at 1 teaspoon per 10 gallons of water. (For aquariums containing invertebrates we have a variant of this treatment with 3 active ingredients called Aqua Pro-Cure).
To summarize then, Gyrodactylus in its various manifestations, is quite a common parasite, which if the fish are in good conditions, with clean water and unstressed, should remain at a level which will cause no problems. If for any reason these conditions should change for the worse, then an outbreak will often occur, which if spotted early can be brought easily & quickly under control.
Gyrodactylus is an excellent example, of how prophylactic treatment in a quarantine tank, can be used to preempt the likelihood of any such outbreak.
5-Costia grey sheen over body : a cover of gray layer cover some parts of the fish boody , it is not widley spread , somtimes called costia illness 
6- Fungus : Fungal infections are among the most common diseases seen in tropical fish. Because fungal spores are found in all fish tanks, they can quickly colonize and create problems in stressed, injured, or diseased fish. Poor water quality can also lead to an increase in fungal infections in an otherwise healthy fish population. Most aquarium owners easily identify external fungal infections. Most fungal infections have a characteristic white fluffy appearance and are commonly known as 'cotton wool disease.' As the fungal infections worsen, they may take on a gray or even red appearance.
Fortunately most fungal infections only attack the external tissues of fish and eggs. Most infections are usually associated with a preexisting infection or injury and this is why a two-part treatment is often necessary to completely cure these infected fish. There are a few fungal infections that will infect the internal organs of fish and they will be touched on a little later.
Fungi are present throughout most aquariums, but certain conditions increase the possibility of fungal infections including:
  • Poor water quality
  • Poor hygiene
  • Dead fish or large amounts of decomposing organic material in the tank
  • Fish that are injured, old, or have other diseases
Tanks with fish that have reoccurring fungal infections need to be examined for tank hygiene, filtration and water quality. Healthy tanks should rarely have fish with fungal infections.
Cotton Wool Disease:
Cotton wool disease' is a general term applied to the most common fungal infections that infect the skin, fins and mouth. The fluffy white growths often colonize areas where there have been previous infections, parasites or injuries. The most common types of fungi in these infections areSaprolegnia and Achyla. Other fungi may also cause these infections and there may be more than one species at the site of an infection.
Treatment for cotton wool disease includes salt baths or the antifungal agent phenoxyethanol. In some instances, the entire tank is treated, but if individual infections are present, treating the fish in a separate hospital tank is preferable. Individual topical application of the antifungal and antibacterial agent Gentian Violet is also a treatment option.
Egg fungus
If the aquarium owner has fish that are actively breeding, the eggs can become infected with a fluffy white fungal infection. The Achyla and Saprolegnia fungi are the species that cause the most problems. These fungi are present in most aquariums and will often infect damaged, diseased, or infertile eggs, and the fungus can then spread to healthy eggs. Since many egg laying species protect their eggs and will pick out diseased eggs, this is primarily a problem in situations where the parents have abandoned the nest or in artificial rearing situations.
Once an egg has become infected there is no practical treatment. Infected eggs should be immediately removed with a pipette, needle, or forceps. It is important the aquarium owner does not confuse a healthy opaque egg with a fungally infected egg.
Fungus can be reconized easily can hit several parts of the fish body , tail , mouth 
Gill rot 
Gill rot is an uncommon fungal infection but if it does occur, it can be deadly if not treated. An infected fish usually gasps for air and has gills that are covered with mucus and are mottled in appearance. The infection is usually caused by the fungus Branchiomyces and can cause the entire gill to rot away. Infections usually occur in stressed fish that are living in tanks with high levels of ammonia or nitrate. While treatment is difficult and usually unsuccessful, some cases have been cured with long-term therapy of phenoxyethanol baths and increased oxygen levels. Prevention and good husbandry are important in preventing this disease.
Systemic fungal infections
In tropical fish are rare and generally considered to be difficult to diagnose and treat. As a result, not much is known about these conditions. A fungus that can cause systemic infections is Icthyophonus. Infected fish show generalized poor health. Diagnosis is often made only through a thorough post mortem examination. Stressed fish in poor quality water and environments are more susceptible to this disease. Some infected fish have been successfully treated with malachite green immersion baths.
Most aquarium owners will have to deal with a fungal infection at one time or another. Most infections can be successfully treated if caught early. Fungal infections are notorious for developing in unhealthy or injured fish, particularly in poorly-cared for tanks. If you see a fungal infection in your fish, make sure to check the water quality and insure that your tank is providing a healthy, safe, natural environment for all of your fish.
7-    Cloudy eyes , Eye bulges   : 

Cloudy eyes: 

If a fish's eye seems cloudy, the first task is to determine if it may be normal for that species. Some puffers, rabbitfish, scorpionfish and walleye have a normal cloudy sheen to their eyes. This will be seen in both eyes equally, and will always be present under the right viewing conditions. It the cloudiness appears over time, it is not a normal condition for that fish.

The next determination is the cloudiness on the eye's surface, (on the surface of the cornea) or deeper inside the organ (involving the pupil). A fish with one eye that has a cloudy cornea has likely just injured the eye and time will often heal the problem (assuming no secondary bacterial infection arises). A fish, (or multiple fish) with both eyes having clouding to their corneas usually indicates a systemic problem. This may be poor water quality, a bacterial or protozoan infection or very often, a trematode (fluke) infection.


Disease induced eye problems


-Bacterial diseases: 

If a fish gradually develops only minor bilateral popeye, (usually without cloudiness to the cornea), a bacterial disease may be the cause. Fish tuberculosis, Mycobacterium marinum is a very common, chronic disease that can cause this. This bacteria is ubiquitous - that is, it is commonly found in aquarium water, soil, and even in many frozen fish foods. Some species of fish are more prone to becoming infected than others, and there is no proven treatment for this malady. Additional symptoms of this problem can include emaciation, (loss of body mass despite the fish feeding well) darker than normal coloration, rapid breathing and lethargy. In marine fish, it is generally a "disease of old age", so only long-term captive fish seem to succumb to it.

If an external bacterial disease is suspected, gentamicin sulfate, an aminoglycoside antibiotic has been shown to help. Because this antibiotic is applied topically, and is water-soluble, it is probably better to use the ophthalmic ointment as opposed to the aqueous solution as the latter will immediately wash off the fish's eyes when the animal is returned to the water. Some aquarists have reported using this drug in conjunction with dorzolamide hydrochloride (Trusopt) in cases of external bacterial eye infections combined with mild exophthalmia. Truspot is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used in humans to reduce ocular hypertension. It is presumed that this drug may have a similar effect on eye swelling in fishes.


- Fungal disease : 

External fungal diseases are extremely rare in marine fishes, but Saprolegnea sp. is a fungus that will often infect freshwater fishes at the site of a previous injury. In most cases, the individual threads or hyphae are visible to the naked eye, or by using a simple hand lens. There is some debate about the need to control Saprolegnea or not. This fungus feeds on dead tissue, which might otherwise become infected with bacteria. Some aquarists advocate leaving it alone to "clean" the wound. If the wound is so severe that the fungus takes over, the fish would have died from the injury anyway. At issue here is that a fungal infection on the fish's eye may leave scarring that would affect the fish's ability to see. Anti-fungal treatments may be warranted in these cases, either methylene blue at two parts per million, or sea salt at 4 parts per thousand (if the freshwater fish will tolerate that level).


-Gas bubble disease : 

This syndrome more typically produces gas bubbles on the body of seahorses, (including the male's brood pouch) but can also involve the skin around the eyes. The cause of this problem is not well known, and only experimental treatments have been proposed. Injections with acetazolamide at around 5mg per kg have shown promise in treating this disease, but that treatment is an off-label use of the drug, and outside the ability of most home aquarists to perform. Many aquarists have attributed this syndrome to supersaturation of the water with gas - making it an environmental condition (covered in the next section). However, it has been repeatedly shown that gas bubble disease can infect seahorses in aquarium systems that are not undergoing supersaturation, so the cause of the problem must be found elsewhere.



Cryptocaryon irritans (marine ich or whitespot disease) can cause cloudy eyes, but there are always secondary symptoms such as distinct white spots on the fish's body. Trematodes, (flukes) will very often cause cloudy eyes as the primary symptom. Neobenedenia sp. in particular is very commonly seen in marine aquariums. Sometimes called "eye flukes", (although they live unseen on the fish's body just as well) this parasite will require proper treatment in order to save the fish.

This trematode is best eradicated using Praziquantel administered in a quarantine tank at a rate of 0.20 ppm for seven days, followed by a 50% water change and then administer a second dose followed by a second water change seven to ten days later.

Freshwater dips for five minutes will help to diagnose this malady. After such a dip, look at the bottom of the container for white, 1 to 2 mm oval shapes - these are dead flukes. Because Neobenedenia sp. is an egg-laying species, the flukes will still be present in the aquarium, even if the dip removed most of them from the fish.



-Environmentally induced eye problems : 

Physical trauma: 

Injuries can cause exophthalmia from identifiable sources of trauma (such as resulting from a fish that was recently captured and moved) but it is often from an unknown cause. The eye may or may not have clouding of the cornea, and bubbles may or may not be present. If this problem is suspected, the best treatment is to keep the fish safe from further trauma and see if it will resolve on its own. Aspirating the fluid or gas from behind the eye with a hypodermic needle is usually ineffective, and may actually cause additional trauma through repeated handling the fish. Remember that capture trauma is one of the primary causes of exophthalmia, so capturing the affected fish time and time again to withdraw the gas or fluid is likely to only increase the damage. At the very least, it is imperative to use a sedative or anesthetic when attempting this sort of surgery, both to reduce the fish's thrashing about, as well as humane consideration of the animal. For unknown reasons, mechanically induced exophthalmia is always restricted to marine fishes.


Sunken eye:

This is a condition known as enophthalmia, and is the reverse of exophthalmia. In captive fishes, it is almost always caused by severe dehydration experienced by fish exposed to a sudden rise in the salinity of their water. In this case, the problem is always bilateral - affecting both eyes equally. Rarely, mechanical damage resulting in the puncture of the eye globe itself will result in the deflation, or enophthalmus of just one eye.



Typically, this is caused by an air leak developing on the suction side of a pump, a sump that is allowed to "catch air", sometimes combined with water being pumped back into the aquarium without sufficient surface agitation. There is no cure for this problem other than to rectify the cause of the supersaturation and offer the fish time to recover on their own. Public aquariums may have the ability to hold the fish in pressurized chambers or deep aquariums (see sidebar). This can recompress the gas and if slowly depressurized, return the fish to normal condition.

Some fish develop a mild case of bilateral exophthalmia, and then never have the problem get any worse - even after years in captivity. The initial cause of this is unknown, and it is also not known why the problem never progresses to create any serious issue with the fish. Basically, a long-term captive fish, (very often a clownfish, grouper, triggerfish or angelfish) will slowly develop a minor case of popeye to a certain point, and then never have the problem get any worse, and it may do fine for years afterwards. The symptom is often so minor that it often cannot even be detected unless the fish is compared to normal (wild) specimens. Speculation as to the cause of this includes; dietary issues, chronic fish tuberculosis (Mycobacterium marinum and related species), minor mechanical trauma and even simply old age.


Vitamin and dietary deficiencies:

While deficiencies in certain vitamins have been reported to cause eye problems in fish (Hemdal 2006) in most of these cases, the problem can only be demonstrated in the laboratory when fish are fed diets completely lacking in certain nutrients. Aquarium fish that are being fed at least a relatively rounded diet will not show these extreme symptoms, and thus dietary causes of blindness are quite rare.

Riboflavin (vitamin B2) and Vitamin A are both important for the continued eye health and proper vision in fishes. However, Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin, and artificially high doses can be toxic to fish. Remember that supplementing these vitamins will not cure eye problems in fish that were initially caused by another factor. Two vitamins that sometimes are deficient in aquarium fish diets are thiamin (vitamin B12) and -tocopherol (vitamin E) - but these are not implicated in eye problems.


A Diagnostic Key to Fish Eye Problems:

The following key can be used by aquarists to evaluate problems they may have with their fish's eyes. To use this key, just answer each question and then proceed to the next question as directed. If you are unclear of any answers, try following the key through both branches and see if one result is a better fit for your fish's problem.

1- Assuming there are a group of fish in the aquarium, is more than one fish affected? If yes go to # 2, if no go to #6. If the fish is being housed separately, you may need to explore both options to see which is a better fit.

2-Was the development of the eye problem rapid, involving many fish, typically with bilateral retrobulbar exophthalmia and possibly air bubbles visible in some of their eyes? If yes, go to #4, if no go to #3

3-Are the corneas of most fish clear? If yes, go to #4, if corneas are cloudy, go to #5

4-This may be a case of acute supersaturation of atmospheric gas in the fish's bloodstream.

5-Many fish in an aquarium, all with cloudy eyes, typically is a sign of a widespread infection - see disease section.

6-With only one fish being affected, the problem is either just starting, or it will be limited to that individual. Is the fish a Syngnathid? (Seahorse, pipefish or seadragon). If so, got to 7, else go to 8.

7-Gas Bubble Disease (GBD) is a possibility.

8-Only one fish is affected, does it have exophthalmia in both eyes? If so, go to 10, if only in one eye, go to      9. If the fish does not exhibit exophthalmia, go to 11

9-Commonly, exophthalmia that develops in one fish, in only one eye is a result of physical trauma.

10-Mild bilateral exophthalmia in one fish can have many causes. Review the fish's history for possible infection-associated problems. In some cases, the cause cannot be determined; therefore no treatment can be suggested.

11-Does the fish have the main symptom of not being able to see properly? If so, see the section on blindness, else go to 12.

12-The remaining eye problems are typically chronic conditions such as cataracts and droop-eye for which there is no effective treatment.



Aquarists need to inspect their fish closely every day, for signs of impending health problems. It is much easier to resolve a problem when it first starts, than to attempt a drastic emergency treatment when the fish is close to dying. A fish's eye is a natural focal point for an aquarist looking at their fish. Look for changes in the eye and then use the information in this article to predict a proper course of action. But please remember that although many observable problems with fish first show up as changes in their eyes, this is by no means always true. Therefore, examine the entire fish closely for any other subtle changes, as well as analyze its overall demeanor - how well it is feeding, how it interacts with tankmates, its respiration rate and if it is overall alert and active. An aquarist who is highly alert to health changes in their fish is always better able to resolve the problem before fish loss occurs.

 8- Eye Fluke : 

Uncommon dieses can be identified easily be blown or bubble eyes,  the main reasons is stresses and sudden changes in water chemistry parameters ..

 9- Hole in the Head : 
Hole in the head disease is a fairly common disease of freshwater fish that primarily affects cichlids, discus, and oscars. Another common name for this disease is Freshwater Head and Lateral Line Erosion (FHLLE). There are several suspected causes of this disease, and while it can be fatal, if treated early, most fish can survive. This article will describe the symptoms, causes, and treatments of this common problem.
Causes of hole in the head disease:
The exact cause of hole in the head disease has yet to be determined. There are, however, several very solid theories that link certain conditions with an increase in the incidence of the disease. The presence of any one of the causative factors may not be responsible for the disease, but a combination of two or more factors is likely to create disease symptoms.
A common contributing cause is the flagellate parasite Hexamita. This parasite primarily infects the intestinal tract, but then spreads to the gall bladder, abdominal cavity, spleen, and kidneys. As the disease progresses, the classical lesions of hole in the head disease appear. These lesions will open up and may discharge small white threads that contain parasitic larvae. Secondary bacterial or fungal infections may then develop in these openings and may lead to a more serious disease, and death.
Another popular theory is that a mineral or a vitamin imbalance may contribute to the development of this disease. Some aquarists have claimed a link between the use of activated carbon and an increase in the disease. Some people feel that the carbon may remove some of the beneficial minerals found in the water leading to an increased incidence in the disease. At the same time, the mineral imbalance may be caused by an increase in Hexamita organisms in the intestine, which may lead to malabsorption and a decrease in the absorption of the needed vitamins and minerals.
Conditions that create stress will also increase the incidence of this disease. Poor water quality, improper nutrition, or overcrowding are all stressors that can cause a problem. Because the disease is often associated with older fish, there may be a link with decreased function of the immune system in these older fish and an increase in the incidence of the disease.
The signs include pitting-type lesions on the head and lateral line. The condition may be mild at first, but if changes to the environment and treatment are not initiated, the holes will become larger and secondary bacterial and fungal infections will develop. These lesions can eventually create a severe infection and the fish becomes systemically ill with loss of appetite and death.
Because there may be multiple causes of this disease, the treatment usually consists of taking a multi-faceted approach. The goal is to rid the fish of Hexamita, improve water quality, and improve vitamin/mineral supplementation and nutrition.
A common treatment for infection with Hexamita includes the addition of the antibiotic metronidazole to the treatment tank housing the infected fish. Water quality must be closely watched, and the water quality adjusted to the exact standards required for the fish. Improving nutrition by adding fresh or frozen meaty foods or vegetables in the form of seaweed strips or lightly steamed broccoli may help. Make sure to target the nutrition to the species you are treating. For example, some cichlids are primarily vegetarians, whereas oscars are carnivores. In cases where secondary bacterial infections are present, additional antibiotics such as Maracyn, Kanacyn, or Furan may be needed. When treating this or any disease, try to use a separate treatment tank and treat as soon as the first symptoms appear.
Prevention primarily focuses on reducing any stress affecting the fish. Stress, whether in the form of parasites, poor nutrition, or poor water quality all cause a suppression of the fish's immune system, which makes them more susceptible to this or any other disease.
If you own cichlids, oscars, or discus this is a disease that may occur in your tank. Be able to recognize the disease and take prompt steps to initiate early treatment; provide optimum water conditions; and feed the best possible diet. If managed and maintained properly, your fish should improve and not develop the disease again in the future.


 10-   Mouth Fungus : 
It is same Cotton fingus refer to the point 6 
 11-    Gill Fluke , Inflamed Gill : 
  • Fish gasps for air at the water's surface
  • Gills open and close rapidly
  • Gills are covered in mucus
  • Part of gills may be eaten away
  • Scraping & Flashing 
Skin / Gill Flukes General Description: 
Like many parasitic diseases, the fish is not likely to be affected unless it is stressed or sick. They are tiny worm-like parasites that are rarely seen by the naked eye. They attach to the fish with hooks-like structures and whilst attached can actually move around! They affect mainly young fish, older fish seem to be less affected. The parasite spreads quickly in an aquarium, so quick treatment is preferable. 
The parasite can kill fish in large numbers, and secondary infections are also a common cause of death.
Skin / Gill Flukes Treatments: 
Flukes are hard to treat and complete eradication is virtually impossible. For individuals affected with flukes, consecutive salt baths over 2-3 days can be useful.
Skin / Gill Flukes Prevention:
Make sure the water is of a high quality, check pH and ammonia levels.
 12-    White Spot ( Ich )  : 
Ich (ick) is the most common disease of all freshwater and marine aquarium fish. Anyone that keeps fish for any period of time will eventually have fish that develop ich. Many hobbyists consider this disease to be just a common nuisance but the reality is that ich is probably responsible for more fish deaths than just about any other disease. There are several effective treatments for ich, but if they are not administered correctly, they can cause serious problems with your fish and tank inhabitants. This article will help explain the source and cause of ich as well as giving treatment options and prevention strategies.
What is ich?
Ich is a protozoan disease that is often called 'white spot disease.' The scientific name for the disease is ichthyophthiriasis and the causative agent is Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. It is wide spread in all freshwater fish but appears to be more common in aquarium fish, possibly due to the closer contact and stress involved with aquarium species.
Why fish get ich?
Ich is so widespread that many experts feel that it is present in the environment of most aquariums, especially in larger holding tanks, rearing ponds of breeders, collectors, and wholesalers. In fact, just about every aquarium fish will come into contact with this protozoan at several times in its life. Because it is so widespread, most fish have developed a good immune response against the disease to allow them to fight off the protozoan infection before it ever causes any symptoms. Captive fish that develop ich usually get the disease when their immune systems are not functioning as well as they should be because of stress. We know that stress lowers the immune response and when fish are stressed that is when ich is most prevalent.
There are many causes of stress in a fish's life, many of which can be made worse or better by the owner. Water temperature, water quality, tank inhabitants, improper diet, and a variety of other factors all contribute to stress, but one of the most severe causes of stress occurs during shipping and handling of a new fish. Whether coming from the wild or farm-raised, the handling and shipping of the fish from their origin to a wholesaler, then to a retailer, and finally to your home is extremely stressful. With the widespread prevalence of ich, it is no wonder that many newly purchased fish are affected.
Identifying ich
The symptoms of ich are very evident and usually include characteristic white spots on the body and gills. In some infections, the ich organisms will only be found on the gills. As the disease progresses, the fish will become more irritated and may try to rub or scratch against the sides and bottom of the tank. The disease may then cause respiratory distress, severe agitation, loss of appetite, and eventually death.
This disease is often identified based upon history, symptoms, and the presence of white spots, but if there is any question, it can be identified microscopically. A lesion can be scraped and viewed under the microscope to reveal a rather large cyst between .5 and 1.5 mm in diameter. It also has a very characteristic large horseshoe-shaped nucleus.
The life cycle of ich
The life cycle of Ichthyophthirius is complicated but very important in understanding the treatment and prevention of ich. Once the ich protozoan attaches to the side of the fish, it begins feeding on the skin and tissue causing irritation. The fish's body begins to wall off the parasite to try to limit its damage. The protozoan continues to move around in the cyst feeding and growing, while the body continues to further encapsulate and wall it off. This encapsulation by the body is one of the reasons that ich is so difficult to treat during this stage of the disease because medications cannot penetrate through the wall of the cyst to reach the ich parasite. During this stage, the ich protozoan is called a trophozoite. The trophozoite eventually matures and is termed a "trophont." It will burst through the cyst wall and then fall to the bottom of the aquarium. It then begins to divide into hundreds of new ich-infecting units called tomites. This stage is very temperature-dependent within its capsule, with the fastest replications occurring at warmer temperatures near 78-80°F. At optimum temperatures, the replication will be completed in about 8 hours. At lower temperatures, the replication takes longer making the treatment time for eradication much longer.
Once the replication is complete, the trophont bursts and releases the newly-formed tomites into the water. The tomites are motile and swim around the tank searching for a fish to attach to. Once they attach to a fish, the cycle will start over again. It is during this stage that ich is most susceptible to treatment. Many of the available medications will kill the tomites, thereby stopping the cycle of ich in your tank. It should be noted that these tomites will only survive for 48 hours, if they do not find a fish to attach to. These tomites will also attach to plants, filter material, etc. So if you move a plant from an infected tank into a clean tank, you have just infected the clean tank with ich. Depending on the water temperature, the whole cycle can take from 4 days to several weeks.
Treating ich: 
There are many over-the-counter medications for ich. They all boil down to a few common ingredients, each of which has a downside. In addition, Ich outbreaks often accompany cycling problems and it is difficult to keep up with frequent small water changes (to minimize ammonia and nitrite levels) while dosing with a medication that advises not to do any water changes during treatment. With that said, I’ll start by recommending my first two choices for treatment, which are more “natural” (or at least less “chemical”) and should be easier on your fish, your biological filter, and your wallet.
Raised Temperature:
There are two schools of thought regarding raising the temperature of the water to treat ich.

1- The first approach is used simply to speed up the lifecycleof the parasite, since whatever medication you choose will only be effective on the free-swimming tomonts and thermonts. It is understood that at temps above 75ºF, for example, an entire lifecycle can be complete in less than 4 days. (In contrast, it can take more than 5 weeks at temps below 45ºF, such as you might find in an outdoor pond.) Slowly raising the temperature a few degrees above normal (to approximately 80 - 82ºF) will do the trick, and you can treat accordingly with salt or a medication (see below). Always maintain good surface agitation, especially with a higher temperature.
2-The second approach is to actually destroy the organism with heat, and can be combined with the salt treatment below, but not with meds. The data I studied (including a report by the Southern Regional Aquaculture Center, which is currently archived here) suggests that most strains of Ich cannot reproduce at temperatures above 85ºF. To use this treatment approach, slowly (no more than 1 or 2 degrees per hour) raise the temperature to 86ºF, while maintaining strong continuous surface agitation to oxygenate the water. This is extremely important because water holds less O2 at higher temperatures. (This is why meds should not be used in conjunction with high temp – most Ich treatment productsalso reduce oxygen levels. Less available oxygen, combined with the respiration difficulties an infected fish is already faced with, could be fatal.) You can angle powerheads up toward the surface, or lower your water level to get a little extra splash from your filter return. As with any treatment, observe your fish closely for signs of stress (labored breathing, erratic behavior) and reduce the temperature slowly if necessary. (A note to the wary; my Malawi haps and clown loaches endured a temperature of 88ºF for 10 days with apparent ease – I never detected the slightest hint of distress – and the Ich was completely wiped out. One article that I read suggests the temperature be raised to 90ºF!)
The adjusted temperature should be maintained for approximately 10 days, or a minimum of 3 days after all signs of the parasite have disappeared. Do not discontinue treatment when the spots go away. This is critical, because we know that they are visible only as a trophont on the body of the host, and not during the reproductive or free-swimming stage. We also know that trophonts on the gills are impossible to see.
One last note on raised temperature treatment: If you follow the directions here thoroughly and have a subsequent outbreak without having added new fish or plants, you may need to try a different approach. It is possible to encounter a resistant strain of ichthyophthirius, as there have been rare instances recorded where the organism survived at 92ºF!
Salt is frequently recommended for treating a myriad of fish diseases, especially those involving external protozoa and fungi.
What kind of salt? We are not talking about “marine salt” or “cichlid salt” (both of which typically contain a blend of mineral salts and trace elements specially formulated for aquarium use to simulate ocean or rift lake water chemistry). You want sodium chloride (NaCl). “Aquarium salt” is the most widely used form because it does not contain the iodine or anti-caking agents that table salt does. I will say, however, that several credible sources assert that the minute amount of additives in table salt are harmless. Robert T. Ricketts, writing for AquaSource online magazine, puts it best with “any water-living vertebrate would be pickled in brine well before toxic concentrations of iodine could be reached.” Still, others offer strong warnings about the dangers of iodine and prussiate of soda (an anti-caking agent) and suggest “canning salt” as a cheaper alternative to aquarium salt. Make your own choice, but since I’ve heard only warnings and no actual accounts of fish death by table salt, I assume it’s most likely the ‘better safe than sorry’ principle at work here. “Sea salt” is another option, and is generally available in nutrition stores because it is considered a more “natural” form of salt. It does not contain iodine, but may have anti-caking agents. I have used it in my aquariums without incident.
Can my fish handle salt? I wrote this article with African rift lake cichlids in mind, and I have successfully exposed my Malawi haps and clown loaches to a salt treatment without any problems. But these fish are accustomed to fairly hard water with a high pH. It is my understanding that species preferring soft water will not tolerate salt as well. If you keep soft water fish, please do your homework before proceeding with salt.
How much? I visited websites and read articles on treating Ich in generic freshwater fish, food fish, guppies, loaches, and African rift lake cichlids to name a few. I encountered dosage recommendations ranging from about 1.75 tablespoons to 6 tablespoons salt per 5 gallons of water. One rift lake cichlid importer/breeder uses “1 handful” of salt per 5 gallons of water. I concluded that my fish can probably tolerate more salt than I think, at least on a short-term basis. Based on everything that I’ve read to date, I would feel comfortable adding 2-3 tablespoons salt per 5 gallons if I were also using the high temperature treatment outlined above. If I were using salt alone, I would work my way up to 4-5 tablespoons per 5 gallons. We don’t want to skimp on our treatment if we hope to permanently eliminate this pest. Salt should be added slowly over the course of 24-48 hours or so (always dissolve in a small container of tank water first). Keep a close eye on your fish and perform an immediate water change if they show any additional signs of stress (beyond what the Ich is already causing).
How long? The salt bath should be maintained for approximately 10 days, or for at least 3 days after any visible signs of Ich can be detected. Do not discontinue treatment when the spots go away. If you use a higher dosage of salt, watch the duration more closely. One article (on guppies) specifically stated not to leave the fish in salt longer than ten days, but their dosage recommendation was on the high end at 5 tablespoons per 5 gallons.
What else should I do? The salt bath can be used on its own, or in conjunction with a temperature adjustment as described in the section above. A water change can be performed during the salt treatment (but is not necessary unless nitrates are creeping up to an undesirable level). Be sure to salt the replacement water accordingly to maintain salinity. Gravel vacuuming is also helpful to remove as many tomonts as possible before they can release offspring. Again, this is not absolutely necessary since the salt should destroy the free-swimming thermonts upon their release.
At the end of the treatment, do several large (40-50%) water changes with dechlorinated unsalted water to reduce the salinity to normal.
One last note on salt treatments: If you follow the directions here thoroughly and have a subsequent outbreak without having added new fish or plants, you may need to try a different approach. It is possible to encounter a resistant strain of ichthyophthirius, as there have been rare instances recorded where the organism survived in water salted at more than 5 tablespoons per 5 gallons.
1-Trophozoites mature in the skin of the fish.
2-Trophont (mature trophozoite) leaves the fish.
3-Trophont produces tomites.
4-Trophont bursts and tomites are released.
5-Tomites penetrate the skin of the fish, and the cycle is repeated.
Traditional Medications:
As stated previously, there are many products available for treating ich. Whatever you choose, be sure to:
1-Read the label thoroughly for dosage information, special instructions, and warnings related to your own health and that of your plants, invertebrates, and scaleless or sensitive species of fish.
2-Perform a water change and vacuum the gravel before medicating. Most meds are less effective with excessive dissolved organics (nitrates) present and you’re often instructed not to change any water during treatment.
3-Remove the carbon from your filter.
4-Maintain good surface agitation and water movement.This is always important, but it is absolutely critical when raising your water temperature and administering meds – both of which reduce the oxygen content of the water and can kill your fish if care is not taken. For that reason, it isnot advisable to raise the temperature more than 2 degrees above normal when using any of the following Ich treatment products.
5-Continue treatment for the duration advised. Because of the lifecycle of the parasite it is critical that you continue treatment for a minimum of 3 days after any visible signs of Ich can be detected. Do not discontinue treatment when the spots go away. If the instructions advise you to retreat, do so.
6-Disregard grandiose claims. Some products claim to “cure ick within 24 hours.” Based on what we know about the lifecycle of this parasite, that is simply not possible.
- Copper-based medications are commonly recommended for treating ich. Some brand names include CopperSafe® by Mardel,General Cure® by Aquarium Pharmaceuticals, and Aquari-Sol®. Look for the active ingredient “copper sulfate” or “soluble copper salts.” Copper does not stain and is highly recommended by someaquarists. It does have drawbacks, however. It causes oxygen concentration to drop, it is toxic to snails and invertebrates, it may not be tolerated well by scaleless fish and plants, and like any chemical, it can certainly be toxic to your fish especially if dosed incorrectly. Apparently the toxicity increases as total alkalinity (KH) decreases. This would suggest that copper-based meds may be better suited for use with African rift lake cichlids than with softwater fish from low pH/KH conditions. But beware; if you should have a drop in your pH while using copper your fish could perish.
-Potassium Permanganate has been suggested as an alternative to copper for treating ich, especially in soft water fish. It is primarily used in ponds, and is not in my opinion the best choice for aquarium use. It most certainly is not for the beginner. It can be purchased under its chemical name, or found as the active ingredient in products such as Flukes Control® by Aquatronics. As with so many chemicals, there’s a fine line between calling it a wonder drug and a lethal substance. It is not really a medication but an oxidizing agent that reacts with organic material, resulting in the destruction of external bacteria, fungus and parasites. For that reason, it is considerably less effective with excessive nitrates present, because its oxidizing power is “used up” on the dissolved organics in the water and is consequently not effective against the target pathogen. It is often used by retailers as a dip for incoming plants, to eliminate snails and their eggs. It is toxic in high doses, especially in high pH water; there are better choices for treating African rift lake cichlids. It is not safe for eggs and fry, and excessive treatments can cause gill damage in adults. It will damage your biological filter, kill algae, and reduce oxygen concentration in the water; strong aeration and water movement is critical. It can be tough on live plants and catfish, and should not be combined with any other chemicals – especially Formalin. It can burn your skin and eyes, and will stain your hands and clothing brown; gloves are recommended. It cannot be removed with carbon like other meds; it is neutralized with hydrogen peroxide but I don’t know exactly how that is accomplished safely in the aquarium. Again… this is for the advanced fishkeeper.
- Formalin is a form of formaldehyde and is often used by fish farmers and home aquarists to treat ich. It can be purchased under its chemical name, or found as the active ingredient in products such as Ick Guard II® by Jungle, and Formalite III® by Aquatronics (which also contains copper). While it is non-staining and said to be safe for live plants (and at lower dosages…) scaleless fish, eggs and fry, it is nevertheless a strong chemical – a preservative for biological specimens (AKA embalming fluid). It may damage your biological filter, deplete oxygen levels in the aquarium, and destroy invertebrates and weak fish. Its toxicity increases with water temperature and acidity, making it a questionable choice for soft water fish.
-Malachite Green is an ominous substance that’s highly effective against Ich and fungi. It can be purchased separately under its chemical name, or found as the active ingredient in products such as Maracide® by Mardel, Ich Cure® by Aquatrol, Super Ich Plus® by Aquatronics, and Fungus Plus® by Aquatronics. It is carcinogenic and dangerous to handle or breathe (especially for pregnant women). There are rumors circulating that it could be banned for aquarium use by the FDA in the future. It cannot be used on food fish and is toxic to eggs, fry, some varieties of tetras, catfish, elephant noses, loaches and small marine fish. It also may damage your biological filter and will likely stain aquarium decorations and silicone sealant. Malachite Green is light sensitive, and you will be advised to keep your aquarium lights off during treatment to prevent the chemical from oxidizing.
Formalin and Malachite Green are often used in conjunction with one another. The two chemicals are said to have a synergistic effect when combined, having a greater impact together than either one by itself. Products include Rid-Ich+® by Kordon, Quick Cure® by Aquarium Products, Cure-Ick® by Aquarium Products,Ick Guard® by Jungle, and Formalite I® by Aquatronics. This combination of chemicals is probably the most common choice for treating ich.
- Acriflavine : is a chemical found in some Ich medications such asIck Clear® by Jungle, and Acriflavin Plus® by Aquatronics. It is considered to be highly effective against protozoan parasites, as well as external bacterial infections and fungus which sometimes occur as a secondary condition. It may damage your biological filter, harm live plants, cause skin irritation, and stain your hands and tank decorations; gloves are recommended. I do not know how well it is tolerated by invertebrates, sensitive species, scaleless fish and fry, but I do know that it cannot be used on food fish – which is sometimes a clue as to the toxicity of the substance. As always, read warning labels thoroughly.
-Methylene Blue is used primarily for superficial fungal or bacterial infections, and nitrite or cyanide poisoning. It is also considered to be an alternative to Malachite Green for the treatment of fungus and external protozoa in sensitive fish, eggs and fry. It is available under its chemical name or in products such as Methyblu® by Aquatronics. It too cannot be used on food fish, and is a powerful dye that may stain tank decorations and silicone sealant. Damage to plants and biological filter may also occur.
- There are other antiparasitic medications available, but I believe I’ve covered those most commonly used. Clout® byAquarium Products is one more worth mentioning since it appears on nearly every LFS and pet store shelf that carries fish and is often recommended as a cure-all. It is an extremely strong blend of medications which I am unfamiliar with, including dimethylamino, phenylbenzylidene and cyclohexadien. I believe it is best suited for internal parasites. It is definitely not to be used with scaleless fish. Read the label carefully.
Alternative Medications:
There are a few products that have been developed which take a completely different approach to treating Ich than those outlined above. One is Stop Parasites® by Chem-Marin. It utilizes a proprietary blend of food-based ingredients including hot peppers, which may be safer for you and your fish than traditional meds. According to its creator, the product took eight years to develop. It apparently stimulates the fish’s slime coat production to excess, which causes the parasites to slough off, or be shed. Then it provides a “false host” for the parasites to feed upon which is more desirable than the fish. Kent Marine makes a similar product for saltwater parasites called RxP®. I cannot endorse either product, never having used them, but if you are open to homeopathic-type treatments and want to experiment with something other than salt or raised temperature, this product might be for you.
A Final Word:
Most strains of Ich will respond to the treatments described here. However, researchers have recorded rare instances where trophonts were able to encyst and reproduce without leaving the body of the host fish, essentially skipping the second life stage described above. Obviously this is a menacing thought, but one to be considered should all attempts to eradicate the parasite fail. In such an event, it would be impossible to destroy all the organisms and the frustrated hobbyist would fight an endless battle with repeated outbreaks of the disease. Euthanasia would be the only humane option. Let me stress, however, that I read about this in a research paper and have never heard of this actually occurring to a fellow aquarist. Let’s hope it never does.
13- Dropsy ( Pineapple Scales ) : 
Dropsy is not a disease, it is a sign of a disease. Its characteristic appearance is a general bloating of the fish's body.
Frequently, the fish's scales stand out from the body, giving it a pinecone-like appearance. Hence, the Japanese name for the problem — "matsukasa disease" is "pinecone" disease. Sometimes dropsy can be accompanied by another sign of disease commonly referred to as "pop-eye," in which one or both eyes can bulge outward.
Both of these signs are symptomatic of the same basic problem: a dangerous buildup of internal pressure. A tumor or swollen organ may be the cause. Or fluids may be building up in the internal cavity, the result of bacterial or viral infections. A massive infestation of internal parasites can produce dropsy. An intestinal blockage can produce signs of dropsy. Bloating, scale protrusion and pop-eye can also befall female fish that are ripe with eggs.
Because dropsy results in a significant change in the fish's volume and density, it is often accompanied by buoyancy and swimming problems. Either the animal sinks to the bottom or it floats at the surface.
Frankly, it is nearly impossible for the hobbyist to determine with any precision the underlying cause of a dropsy. This is why use of drugs to "cure" the problem meets with limited and unpredictable success. As often as not, the fish will live or die irrespective of drug treatment.
Most often a fish with dropsy dies. Perhaps not immediately, but within several months. Indeed, in instances where dropsy is caused by internal infections, the bloating will disappear for a time, only to return a bit later with a vengeance. Thus, many reports of dropsy "cures" are just misinterpretations of the temporary regression of the disease.
If you have recurrent problems with dropsy in different fish, you can rule out tumors, egg binding and other idiosyncratic causes. The most likely cause in such instances is either internal infection or intestinal blockage. The former frequently accompanies the latter.
In ornamental goldfish and koi, in particular, internal bacterial infections are the most common cause of dropsy. The bacteria that have been isolated are ubiquitous to the backyard pond environment. That is, they are present in and around the pond (and in the fish) all the time. So the question is: Why and how do these bacteria suddenly go out of control and produce this deadly malady?
The answer is simple: fish stress. Many factors, including those you mentioned, such as improper diet, temperature fluctuation, bad water conditions and overcrowding, impair the fish's immune abilities for keeping normally harmless bacteria and other pathogens in check. A reproductive explosion of the disease organisms follows quickly, and the disease takes hold. Sometimes, if you intervene early, you can help the fish to reimpose immune control over the disease. But all too often, the disease has taken its toll by the time dropsy is noticed.
The best way to deal with dropsy is to prevent it. This means, first and foremost, that the aquarium or backyard pond should be lightly stocked. The generally used rule of 1 inch of goldfish per 30 square inches (2.5 centimeters per 194 square centimeters) of aquarium surface is simply inadequate even under the best of circumstances. This is equivalent to keeping a 1-inch goldfish in a coffee can! Consider no more than one average-sized adult goldfish per 30 gallons of well-filtered and aerated water. With koi, I recommend no more than one 12-inch fish per 150 gallons (30 centimeters per 590 liters), or 10 square feet (0.9 square meter) of pond surface.
Second, maintain good water quality consistently and make sure that the nitrogen cycle has been completed in new aquariums and backyard ponds. The pH should be kept between 6.8 and 7.8, with a preference for 7.0 to 7.4. Dissolved oxygen should always exceed 6 parts per million. Ammonia and nitrite should be zero with hobbyist test kits. Daily temperature fluctuations should be kept to within several degrees.
It is also very important that you test for chlorine. Low levels of chlorine can produce continuous stress, leading to dropsy after a few weeks or months. If chlorine is present, you must use a chlorine neutralizer. If the culprit is chloramine — a combination of chlorine and ammonia — an ammonia neutralizer must be used to treat all water.
Next, a good diet that combines vitamin-enriched commercial pellet fish foods, vegetables and assorted pond critters (worms, mosquito larvae, etc.) is essential. A strong immune system requires good feeding practices and good nutrition.
Which leads to me to the problem of intestinal blockage. Some pellet fish foods can cause repeated blockage problems if they are not soaked in water prior to feeding. When fed dry, they tend to expand inside the gut and block passages. If the blockage remains for a day or more, swelling can lead to fluid leakage into the body cavity. Pathogenic bacterial growth follows. In this regard, I have found that large, heavy pellets produce more problems than light, small pellets.
A sudden drop in water temperature after heavy feeding can also lead to intestinal blockage. The rate of fish food passage through the intestinal tract varies directly with the water temperature. If a sudden drop in temperature occurs, everything inside the fish grinds to a halt. If water temperatures do not rise soon, the blockage will remain and internal infection, followed by dropsy, appear soon after. This is why early-spring and late-fall feedings in outdoor ponds are risky.
 14- ِAnchor Worms : 
  • Anchor worms (lernea) can be seen with the naked eye
  • Frequent rubbing or "flashing"
  • Localised redness
  • Ulcers my appear
  • Inflammation on the body of the fish
  • Tiny white-green or red worms in wounds
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Commonly near the base of the fins
  • General lethargy 
Anchor Worms General Description: 
This is a parasite that is extremely rare in aquarium fish. It is a copepod. It must be brought in by an infested fish. It is usually found in ponds. The head of the worm is anchored into the fish's skin. 
Anchor worms were highly contagious and that they are not actually worms, but a freshwater copepod. Only the female will attach itself to the fish, underneath a scale usually deep into the muscle tissue with its powerful extensions on the sides of its anchor shaped head (hence the name anchor worm). The male lernaea will then attach himself to the female�s body. The female will produce egg sacs fertilized by the male, which are then released into the water column. The eggs hatch into a free swimming larvae or nauplii. This is the stage where the crustacean will attach to the fish completing the life cycle. After releasing the eggs, the parents will die off leaving a gaping wound, which is highly susceptible to secondary infections.
Anchor Worms Treatments : 
  • Potassium permanganate dip at 100mg/2.5 gallons of water, or
  • Salt dip
  • Formalin dip at 2 to 4 ml Formalin/2.5 gallons of water for 30 minutes, the fish may lose equilibrium and must immediately be transferred to clean, fresh water
  • Modern antiparasitics (such as Disco-worm, Fluke tabs, and Clout) may help
  • Salt in the aquarium at 1 to 2 tablespoons may help prevent secondary infections
The best treatment is to remove them by hand and quarantine the tank. You may have to do the following a few times. Tweezers work well for removing the anchor worms, try to grip them as close to the wound as possible. Pperiodically dunk the fish into the bucket of water to let him get a few breaths before continuing. After removing as many as you can see, use stress coat and pray.
Anchor Worms Prevention: 
Really the only way to get this is to bring it in from somewhere else, Local Fish Stores that are infected. Be sure to quarantine all new fish and never risk your established tank fish! Also remember to use any and all precautions necessary to protect you and your fishy friends when working with harmful chemicals.
15- Open Wounds - Ulcers : 
Ulcers in goldfish can be caused by a range of different diseases, but they are almost exclusively bacterial in nature.
Where do ulcers occur on fish?
Typically on the skin. Ulcers may also occur on the fins (notably the fin base) and very occasionally on the eyes or within the mouth cavity.
Can any type of fish get ulcers?
Pond fish, coldwater and tropical aquarium fish, and marines are all susceptible.
What causes ulcers?
There are several possible causes but usually a bacterial infection is to blame. These ulcer-forming bacteria may naturally be present in the aquarium or pond but generally they will only cause problems under certain adverse conditions. Skin injuries (e.g. caused by net damage) or damage caused by various types of skin parasites can also -lead to skin ulcers. Unfortunately, the ulcer's appearance gives few clues as to its underlying cause.
Examples of bacteria that cause ulcers:
1- Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. 
These are common causes of ulcers in aquarium and pond fish. 
Several species and strains of these bacteria have been implicated. 
For example, an ulcerative disease of Goldfish and Koi ('Summer Ulcer Disease') is caused by Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies achromogenes.
2) Flavobacterium (formerly known as Flexibacter). 
This ulcer-causing bacterium is also responsible for the condition known as 'mouth fungus' ( Columnaris Disease).
3) Mycobacterium species. 
These bacteria are responsible for a chronic wasting disease in fish known as 'fish tuberculosis' (fish TB). In addition to skin ulcers, symptoms of mycobacteriosis may include: pop-eye, body wasting, stringy faeces, colour fading and, in some cases, bent spines. Mycobacteria invade the fish's internal organs, making the disease difficult to treat using commercial anti-bacterial remedies from the aquarium store. By the time outward symptoms are noticed the internal organs may already be badly diseased, and the fish's chances of survival are slim.
Antibiotics generally offer the best chance of a cure -but only a minority of cases successfully respond to treatment.
Can viruses cause ulcers?
Yes, a few can. Unfortunately, viral infections of fish are often hard to diagnose and cannot be treated using aquarium disease remedies or antibiotics. 
If a virus is suspected then isolate the affected fish and provide them with optimum water conditions and good food: this may help the fish's immune system to fight off the virus.
Is it true that unhygienic aquarium or pond conditions can lead to ulcers?
Most certainly yes! Outbreaks of ulcers in fish can often be traced to dirty water conditions. Proper filtration, avoidance of overcrowding, and regular aquarium maintenance (eg routine part water changes and siphoning excess dirt from the gravel) will greatly reduce the likelihood of ulcer outbreaks.
 What causes small ulcers around the head and lateral line of cichlid fish?
This is often due to a disease condition known as 'Hole-in-the-Head' (HIH). 
It affects mostly South American cichlids such as Discus and Oscars. 
This disease syndrome has not been extensively researched, however it seems that certain species of flagellate protozoan parasites (Hexamita andSpironucleus) are involved, at least in some cases. Poor nutrition and/or bacterial infections have also been implicated.
Successful treatment has been achieved using metronidazole and/or antibiotics, both available from the vet.
Are skin ulcers vulnerable to fungus infection?
Yes. The ulcerated area of skin is prone to infection by aquatic fungi ('water moulds'). Saprolegnia fungus is often to blame and manifests as white-grey cotton wool-like growths. In such cases treat the fish with anti-ulcer and anti-fungus remedies. A good combination of remedies would be Melafix (for dealing with the ulcer) in conjunction with Pimafix (for tackling the fungus). 
These two herbal-based treatments (manufactured by Aquarium Pharmaceuticals Inc.) can be used simultaneously.
Is it true that large ulcers can upset the fish's water balance?
Yes. Fish have to maintain a constant level of salts within their bodies and this is achieved by an energyconsuming process known as osmoregulation. 
Extensive ulcers can upset osmoregulation by breaching the skin's water-proof layers, thereby making the fish 'leaky' to salts and water. As a result, the fish's osmoregulatory system has to work much harder to compensate for these leaks.
In severe cases where the ulcer(s) cover a large surface area of skin the fish's osmoregulatory system may be unable to cope, with life-threatening consequences.
How are ulcers treated?
Many ulcers are treatable using conventional anti-bacteria or anti-ulcer remedies that are sold for aquarium and pond use. Herbal-based remedies (such as Melafix) are now available for fish and these are proving very popular for treating ulcers and other bacterial skin conditions. Some of these proprietary treatments also speed up tissue healing, thereby reducing the likelihood of secondary fungus infections.
In the case of severe or recurrent ulcers (including those accompanied by Pop-Eye or Dropsy), these may require antibiotic treatment from the vet.
Does salt help in dealing with ulcers?
In the case of freshwater fish, salt (pure Sodium Chloride) will help alleviate osmoregulatory stress caused by extensive ulceration. Salt will also help reduce the likelihood of fungus infections.
However, before adding salt to an aquarium ensure that ALL the fish to be treated are salt-tolerant. If in doubt seek advice.
For those fish that are salt-tolerant, add between 2 to 5 grams of salt per litre, as a long-term bath (e.g. several days). At the end of treatment the salt is removed from the system by performing one or more water changes. 
Many anti-ulcer remedies can be used in conjunction with salt, but always check the manufacturer's instructions.
Can ulcers cause scarring to the fish's skin?
Sometimes the healing ulcer will turn very dark. This is due to a localised accumulation of melanin pigment which is produced by the fish as an immune response to the ulcer. Skin melanisation is not harmful but can appear unsightly and may take a long while to fade.
Q. How long do ulcers take to heal?
Assuming any underlying infection has been successfully treated then the damaged tissue will generally heal in about 2 to 8 weeks. The rate of healing will be influenced by many factors, notably water temperature. For example, in pond fish an ulcer will heal much faster in summer than in winter.
Q. What is meant by 'debriding' an ulcer?
This is sometimes performed on severe ulcers, particularly on large pond fish such as Koi. It involves the gentle removal of any dirt and dead (necrotic) tissue within the ulcer, plus any loose scales. This is done using forceps (tweezers) and cotton-wool swabs. The aim is to clean up the wound.
A povidine-iodine solution (as sold for fish use) may be used to disinfect the cleaned ulcer which can then be sealed with a waterproof paste (e.g. Orabase). This delicate procedure requires skill and the fish may need to be anaesthetised beforehand to minimise stress.
 16- ِFish Lice : 
Fish Lice or Argulus is one of the most developed and if left unnoticed can be very detrimental to the goldfish's health, feeding on its flesh. They usually reach up to 0.2in (5mm) in diameter and you can see them quite well without using a microscope. Don't mistake them with algae or dirt.
They can cause extreme irritation as its hooks can get into the goldfish's gills and skin. They will look like grey-green or brownish slightly raised spots on the fish. You can also see the louses eye spots if you look more closely.
Usual causes for fish lice are new un-quarantined fish or plants added to your aquarium.
- The symptoms: 
Along with the Anchor Worm, lice is the largest fish parasite, obvious to the naked eye. You can even see them moving around the fish in protected areas such as behind the fins, near the eyes or gills.

How to cure Lice?

The best way of removing Lice is by holding the goldfish in a damp cloth, using tweezers to remove any visible lice, taut the red spots using neospirin. The main problem is that lice will lay eggs that will hatch and the newly born live will be searching for a host. You need to treat the whole tank. The tank should be treated with Dimilin.(if not using salt cure).

The irritation can cause secondary parasite attacks like Ich or Costia.


How to prevent Lice?

The best way to prevent fish lice is to quarantine any new fish or plants you might want to add, for at least 2 weeks. Otherwise ask the fish owner or dealer if the fish has/have been treated for parasites. Also make sure there are no sick fish in the aquarium where you buy your goldfish.


 For more information about :


1- Quarntine or Hospital Tank

2- Fish Acclimation . 

2- Food and feeding 

3- Salt water aquarium Maintenance 



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