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Aquarium Fish Treatments: 


There are literally hundreds of afflictions that can effect the health of your fish. The most common maladies seen in home aquaria are usually either bacterial or parasitic in origin. Fungal infections are also sometimes seen, and occasionally physical ailments.

Luckily, most fish ailments are easily diagnosed and can be treated with success. The most common of these afflictions are included here. How to prevent fish disease has steps you can take to reduce the possibility of disease and help to keep disease from spreading if it should occure. A table of contents is provided along with a diagnostic chart with links to appropriate medications.

Understanding how an aquarium and its filtration work to support aquatic life is vital in preventing fish ailments. The basics of life support are the same whether you have a freshwater aquarium, saltwater aquarium, or a mini reef.


Oodinium (Velvet) General Description:

The disease is caused by a protozoan parasite (Gold or rust disease), and may be triggered by exposure to ammonia and nitrite, or excessive nitrate levels. 

This parasite is a microscopic dinoflagellate (two little "whip like organs" or flagella used to propel the parasite through the water). It attaches to the skin (then loses the flagella) of fish in order to feed. Initially it appears as small white dots (similar to ich) but is much finer giving it a "velvet" appearance. They can live without a fish host for up to 24 hours in the water.


Oodinium (Velvet) Treatments: 


Possible to cure by not probable. Fish most often die. There are effective commercially available remedies, including Waterlife Protozin (UK and elsewhere), and Maracide by Mardel Labs (US and elsewhere). Begin treatment as soon as possible. 

As Velvet is highly contagious it is important to eradicate this problem as soon as possible. Treatment is aimed at the free swimming stage and there are good cures available from your local freshwater aquarium fish store. Copper sulphate can be used at a concentration of 0.2 mg per litre or 0.2 ppm. This should be repeated after 3 days to ensure eradication.


Oodinium (Velvet) Prevention


Velvet is the most common disease among Bettas. It is caused by an algae that feeds on the slime coat of the betta, as well as other bodily fluids. It attacks the gills first, then spreads over the rest of the body. Because of this, early detection is a must.




18- Velvet ( Oodinium ) Gold-Grey spots : 

Much has been written on the topic of stress & disease, below is summary to help guide you throughout Oodinium (Velvet) prevention and identification.


-Fine grey-gold to whitish 'dust' on the body.

-Very rapid gill movement.

-Scratching or flashing

-Clamping of the fins

-Very similar it ICH 

 17- ِIntestinal Worms : 
Leeches are similar to anchor worms that look like heart shaped worms. They usually enter te aquarium through the addition of live plants or snails, which is why it is important to thouroughly rinse them before adding to the aquarium.
This is an internal parasite disease that it difficult to catch in its early stages. When the actual parasites show it is most likely too late to treat. The best way to treat this is through medicated fish food.
There are some 3,400 species of these worm-like parasites known technically as cestodes and all are parasites of various animals. Of these, some 800 species parasitise various freshwater and marine fish. 
Some species occur as the adult stage within the fish’s intestinal tract where they absorb ingested food from their host. An example is Khawia that lives within the intestines of carp. 
Adult tapeworms are typically elongate and ribbon-like, comprising numerous segments.  Some species may reach 30cm/12”. The adult has hooks and suckers for attachment to the gut wall, so preventing it from being flushed out of the host.
Other tapeworm species occur as the larval stage within the fish, typically residing within the body cavity.  An example is Ligula that occurs in carp and other cyprinids and the adult worm lives in the intestines of fish-eating birds, such as gulls. Paradoxically, some tapeworm larvae are bulkier than the adult worm!
Most tapeworms have highly complex life cycles in which they must sequentially pass through two or more different hosts to complete each generation. Depending on tapeworm species, the adult may live in the gut of either a mammal, bird, or fish. 

Fish may acquire tapeworms by eating an aquatic worm — Tubifex for example — or aquatic crustacean, such as a copepod, that happens to be infected with tapeworm larvae.

Because their life cycles require two or more different hosts, tapeworms are not common in farmed ornamental fish and are highly unlikely to be infectious under aquarium conditions. Wild caught fish, on the other hand, may harbour these parasites. Collectors and exporters use chemicals to purge wild fish.

Fish lightly infected — perhaps harbouring just a single worm — may exhibit no obvious symptoms. A heavy infestation of gut tapeworms can consume a lot of the fish’s food intake, resulting in it slowly becoming weakened and starved from within. The sheer bulk of several large tapeworms can cause a noticeable abdominal swelling.

In live fish, it is difficult to confirm a tapeworm infestation except by having a sample of the fish’s faeces examined professionally for tapeworm eggs. Larval tapeworms do not produce eggs.  

Gut-dwelling tapeworms can be purged using medications, known as anthelmintics — an example being Praziquantel. These are available from a vet, but some may now be legally obtained without prescription from special aquatics suppliers. Traditional parasite cures —for example, whitespot cures — will not kill tapeworms. 


 One Company produce all the Remedies that can trat all fishes illnesses 

Hospital Tank and Quarantine tank : 


- How to Set Up A Hospital Tank : 


You can't prevent your fish from falling ill but setting up a hospital tank can prevent the spread of disease.

No matter how careful you are, your fish are likely to get sick at some point during your time as an aquarium hobbyist. Having a hospital tank running is a great way to prevent an illness from becoming a crisis in your freshwater tank.

f you are a dedicated aquarium hobbyist you probably take the time to perform your weekly water changes so the water quality in your tank remains high. You may even test the water in your aquarium once in a while to make sure your tank parameters are in line. No matter how careful you are, however, there is no way to completely prevent your fish from falling ill. While you cannot completely control whether or not your fish get sick, you do have some control over how the disease affects your fish and the rest of your tank. Setting up and maintaining a hospital tank is a simple way to take control and to prevent disease from becoming a crisis situation in your tank.


Benefits of a Hospital Tank : 

A hospital tank is essentially a back-up tank that you can use to quarantine fish. This tank should be set up to mimic the conditions in your main tank so that transferring fish to the hospital tank induces as little stress as possible on your fish. The main benefit of a hospital tank is that you can separate sick fish from healthy fish, thus halting the spread of disease to other tank inhabitants. Of course, some diseases spread very quickly and may be transmitted through tank water – in cases like this you may not be able to completely stop the spread of disease but moving sick fish to the hospital tank as early as possible may help to lessen the spread.

Another benefit of having a hospital tank for sick fish is that you can treat the fish individually without medicating the entire tank. Many aquarium medications are harmful to invertebrates and may also affect beneficial bacteria – if you dose the entire tank with medicine, you could end up doing more harm than good. By quarantining sick fish to a hospital tank, you can limit your treatment to only the fish that require it. When fish fall ill, they may fall victim to bullying by other fish – removing sick fish to a quarantine tank is the best way to ensure that the fish has time to recuperate and to fully recover before being re-introduced into the main tank.


Setting up a Hospital Tank


While a hospital tank should be set up to mimic the conditions in the main tank, it should not be identical. There is no reason to decorate your hospital tank except to provide your fish with a few places to hide. Substrate is not necessary in a hospital tank and most aquarium hobbyists choose not to use it – a bare-bottom tank is much easier to clean. To set up your hospital tank, start by filling it with water as close to the temperature of your main tank as possible. You will need to install an aquarium heater to maintain the tank at a stable temperature and you should also place an aquarium thermometer in the tank to keep an eye on things.


In addition to maintaining a stable water temperature in your hospital tank, you also need to maintain high water quality. Not only is water quality important for keeping your fish healthy, but it is also important in helping sick fish to recover quickly. To keep the water quality in your tank high you will need to install an aquarium filter. You should, however, be careful when selecting a filter because you do not want to install something that will produce enough suction or water flow to put sick or injured fish at risk. One of the best types of filters to use in a hospital tank is the sponge filter. This type of filter offers mechanical and biological filtration, helping to keep tank water clean without producing a great deal of flow. Because most medications require you to remove activated carbon from the aquarium filter, chemical filtration is typically not necessary in a hospital tank.


Other Tips for Hospital Tanks


After you have set up your hospital tank you need to maintain it just as you would your main tank. Even when you have fish in the hospital tank, you should still perform routine water changes to keep the water quality in the tank high – this is especially important if you are not using a filter that has a chemical filtration component. After using your hospital tank, be sure to give your fish plenty of time to fully recover before re-introducing them into the main tank. The last thing you want is to spark a recurrence of the disease. It is also wise to clean and sanitize the hospital tank after each use to prevent the spread of disease. Many aquarium hobbyists refill their hospital tanks after cleaning so it is ready to use at a moment’s notice. The sooner you begin treatment when your fish fall ill, the better their chances are for making a full recovery. For this reason, it is important that you set up and maintain a functioning hospital tank. 


 Food & Feeding : 


Fish, like any other organism, need a supply of calories to sustain their metabolism. Properly feeding your fish helps them to stay healthy and is helpful in maintaining your aquarium. It is important to know the types of foods your fish need and how much food they need, which differs from species to species.


-Fish food options:

The food provided to your fish must be safe, nutritionally balanced and appropriate to the livestock.

1- Flake and pellet foods
Flake and pellet foods are available in a range of formulations designed for specific types of fish: community fish, saltwater fish, herbivores, carnivores and so on. These can form an excellent staple diet for most fish.

However, once exposed to air, the nutritional value of flake and pellets quickly declines; what was once appetizing and nutritious becomes stale and functionally worthless. Flake and pellet foods should be discarded within three months of opening.

Flake and pellets are often low in fiber, leading to constipation, and this in turn can cause swim bladder disorders and bloating in your fish. High-fiber foods such as Daphnia and vegetable foods will help to prevent this.



High-fiber foods such as Daphnia help to control constipation, which is often caused by flake or pellet foods.

 Several types , shapes and flavours of pellet food which met approximately every type of fishes

2- Freeze-dried foods : 

Freeze-dried fish food contains valuable fiber, as well as an excellent balance of nutrients. Freeze-dried fish food can be used successfully either as the staple fish food item or as a supplement to flake and pellet foods. Freeze drying kills any potential pathogens, making such foods very safe, and most fish seem to find them highly palatable.

The key drawback is expense: compared with frozen fish foods, freeze-dried fish food costs a lot for what you actually get.

 Several types , shapes and flavours  Frozen dried food 

3- Frozen foods : 

Aquarium stores sell a wide variety of frozen fish food items ranging from zooplankton to whole fish. Though less expensive than live foods, frozen foods are just as readily accepted by aquarium fish. This makes them valuable for feeding fussy or predatory fish. Frozen fish food is also less likely to carry pathogens than live fish food, and some manufacturers irradiate the food to make sure that it is completely safe.

Because it is unprocessed, frozen fish food is nutritionally excellent and also tends to be high in fiber. No one fish food should be used exclusively, though, and it is a good idea to alternate between foods through the week: mysids one day, chopped mussel the next and so on. Frozen food-blends tailored for community fish, cichlid fish, saltwaterfish and so on sidestep this problem by including a carefully chosen mix of foods, sometimes with added green foods and vitamins.

Seafood sold for human consumption can also be used, including whitebait, squid, clams, mussels and prawns. Unshelled prawns and shrimp are of particular value for feeding triggerfish and pufferfish by wearing down their fast-growing teeth.

Frozen food is one of the best choises for aquarist 

Blood worms is a tiny red worms with high nutrition a lot of hobbyist depends on it ..

 A special frozen food for Discus ..

 4- Feeder fish :

Serving feeder fish as food is controversial, with many experienced aquarists rejecting them as unnecessary and unsafe, regardless of any ethical dimension. Cheap feeder fish are reared in squalid conditions and very likely to carry diseases and parasites, and should never be used. The most commonly sold feeder fish are minnows and goldfish, and these are too rich in fat and thiaminase to be of value. Over time the fat causes damage to the internal organs while the thiaminase breaks down vitamin B-1. Noted saltwater aquarist Bob Fenner has gone so far as to state that the use of feeder goldfish is the prime source of lionfish mortality in home aquaria.

Why use feeder fish at all? Some fish are predators in the wild, and offering them live fish may be the easiest way to get them to eat in captivity. But frozen fish foods or alternative live foods (see below) can almost always be used instead.

If you must use feeder fish, then the only safe approach is to raise your own. Livebearers are recommended, being nutritionally balanced as well as easy to rear. They should be maintained in a healthy environment and provided with a good-quality diet.

 5-  Live foods : 

The value of live food is that they are immediately recognized as prey even by newly imported wild-caught fish. Otherwise piscivorous fish will usually take earthworms, river shrimp and large insects, while fussy bottom feeders, such as spiny eels and mormyrids, will usually eat worms and insect larvae.

Live food is expensive and inconvenient; frozen fish food in particular is just as readily accepted by most fish and far less costly. Aquatic live food can also introduce pests and diseases. Among the pests known to hitchhike their way into aquaria alongside live food are snails, hydra and dragonfly larvae. Tubifex worms are notorious for transmitting diseases caused by myxosporidian and microsporidian parasites, such as nodular diseases and whirling disease.

Brine shrimp are often promoted as being very safe compared with other live food, and this is certainly true, but adult brine shrimp are nutritionally poor and should not be used as anything more than a periodic treat for your fish.

6-Algae and other green foods : 

Herbivorous fish readily accept Sushi Nori, a Japanese seaweed-based food widely sold in Asian grocery stores. It can be broken up to feed small fish or attached to submersible “lettuce clips” to allow larger fish to nibble at their leisure. Vegetables can also be used. Iceberg lettuce and cucumber are readily accepted, but their nutritional value is very low; much better options include blanched curly lettuce, zucchini and tinned peas. Grazing fish like plecos enjoy sliced carrots and sweet potato.

Wood is an important food item for some fish. Plecos generally seem to need some wood in their diet as a source of dietary fiber, but those in the genus Panaque actually digest wood and will not do well if maintained without access to it. 


- How to feed ? 


Fish feed in a variety of different ways, so how you feed your fish will depend upon what species are being maintained.


 1- Community Fish : 

Small community fish like tetrasand livebearers should be fed once or twice per day, and need only as much food per meal as the fish can consume within a minute or so. There should never be any leftover food. Use floating fish food for surface-feeding fish and sinking fish food for species that stay close to the aquarium’s substrate.

When feeding your fish, inspect your livestock. Start by counting the fish to make sure they are all present. Check the fish for signs of damage or disease. Often the first sign of problems with fish health or aquarium water quality is odd behavior, particularly at feeding time. So, if one or more of your fish isn’t interested in its food, investigate further.

Properly fed aquarium fish should have gently rounded abdomens. Overfed fish have a bloated look and will often be lethargic. Chronically underfed fish will look emaciated, in many cases with a distinctively concave ventral profile.

2-Reef Aquariums:
Saltwater fish can be divided into four basic sorts, as far as feeding goes: bold feeders, plankton-eaters, herbivorous grazers and micropredators. Bold feeders are those saltwater fish such as damselfish that greedily swim into the open at feeding time. Feeding these fish one or two modest meals per day works well.

Plankton feeders can be trickier to feed, the key thing being that they need multiple small meals per day to do well.Anthias are the classic example of plankton-feeding fish, and because they need several meals per day, they easily starve in captivity.

Herbivorous grazers are often bold feeders, as well, but in addition to flake or frozen food, they also need green foods. Surgeonfish and saltwater angelfish are classic herbivores. They need constant access to live algae or some suitable substitute, such as nori.

Micropredators are things like seahorses and Mandarinfish that consume small animals of various types. In mature, very large aquariums, they may be able to find sufficient numbers of copepods and other small crustaceans to do well, but relying on this has lead to the demise of countless fish. Instead, the aquarist will need to provide live or frozen alternatives at least once per day. Because of their particular needs and often rather slow feeding habits, micropredators should not be mixed with community species.

While some invertebrates will find their own food in reef aquariums, algae-eating snails for example, others need the aquarist to supply food.

3- Nocturnal Fish: 

Feeding nocturnal fish can be difficult because the aquarist cannot always tell if one particular fish is eating the food put out for it. This is especially the case with nocturnal predators like spiny eels and mormyrids. When maintaining these slow-feeding species, do not mix them with anything that might eat their food, such as catfish or loaches. Feed nocturnal predators around five times per week.

Green water, in essence a deliberate algae bloom created in a special container, is useful not only as a source of microorganisms, but also as a place to raise other live foods like Daphnia.

 To the left the Tubifex worms and below is a blood worms .. feeding aquarium fishes with these live fresh food is very good for better health and growth .. but is very important also to sterilize and get rid of any infection .. in fact all tropical fish breeders depends on these types of food 

 The great food for the big of predator wish is the Earth worms ..

For those fishes fond of greens  and algae .. you can buy a lettuce clips 

4- Large Predatory Fish:

Most fish are predators, of course, but large predators fall into their own category for several reasons. First, they do not need to eat every single day. Indeed, really big predators, such as large catfish and piranhas, may only need to be fed a couple of times per week.

Second, these fish have a tendency to gorge themselves in the wild, eating one big prey item and then not eating anything else for several days afterward. It is debatable whether this is a sensible approach in the aquarium because the resulting spike in ammonia after a massive meal can cause major problems, in terms of water quality. Some predators are also prone to regurgitating undigested food if they’ve consumed too much, making things even worse. The safest approach is to offer small meals several times a week, perhaps even every day. As ever, the goal is to maintain a gently rounded rather than swollen abdomen.

Finally, there’s some anecdotal evidence that the use of live rather than dead prey makes predatory fish more aggressive. As discussed last time, feeder fish should be avoided.

5- Herbivorous Fish: 

Herbivores do best when given constant access to suitable green foods. Because plant material is low in protein, it has little impact on water quality.

6-Juvenile Fish : 

Without exception, juvenile fish (fish under three months of age) do best when given several small meals throughout the day. In the case of very young fish (under 1 month of age), as many as six meals per day is recommended. Some of those meals can be algae that you have thoughtfully allowed to grow in the aquarium.

7-Feeding Fish During Vacations: 
For periods of up to seven days, you can easily leave a mature aquarium unfed. For longer periods, you have several options. Big fish, particularly predators, can easily go two weeks or more without food if they are healthy. Herbivores like goldfish can be given a bunch of cheap aquarium plants, such as pondweed, and left to their own devices. Community aquariums can usually be catered for using automated feeders. Reducing the rations is a good idea, of course, because you won’t be around to remove waste or perform water changes.


Asking friends to feed your fish isn’t recommended. If you must do this, divide the food into portions before you go, and hide the rest. Leave only enough for one meal every three to four days.

There is a speciall food available for small fshes , live food must be small engugh to be eaten be small or juvenile fish 

Some types of vocational food can withstand in the aquarium for long time until decomposing and release the proper food quantities for fish

Otherwise you have another choice by using food timer ( as Above )  which can fill with the food and set up to  feed the fish regularly ..


To the left Another procedure for long vacation that food can be remain in the aquarium for long period

Question: How Much Should I Feed My Fish?


Answer: In answer to the reader question:
"The last few cans of fish food I bought said Do Not Overfeed. Why is that a problem, and how much should I feed my fish?"

Overfeeding is the most common mistake fish owners make. Overfeeding clogs the filter, and breaks down into toxins that are harmful to fish. Hence the warnings on the packages.

In nature fish eat whenever they are hungry and food is available.

If food sources are plentiful, they will eat several times a day. On the other hand, if food sources are scarce, they might go for days between meals. For this reason, fish are very opportunistic and will eat whenever they have a chance. That means that if you offer them food, they will usually gobble it up even if they aren't starving. Keep that in mind the next time your fish 'beg' for food. Fish quickly learn who brings the food to the tank and will jump at the chance to be fed, even if they are not in dire need of food.

Question: How Often ?


So how often, and how much should fish be fed? Frequency will vary based on the type of fish. In general most fish do quite well on one feeding per day. However, some owners prefer to feed their fish twice a day. Regardless of one or two feedings, the key is to keep the feedings very small. The timing is not critical, with the exception of nocturnal feeders, such as certain catfish. If you have nocturnal fish in your tank, be sure to feed them just before turning the lights out at night.


There are some exceptions to the once per day feeding rule. Herbivores (vegetarians) need to eat frequently because they do not have large stomachs to hold a lot of food. In nature they would graze all day long on plants. They should be given several small feedings a day, or provided with live plants they can nibble. Newly hatched fry and young fish not fully grown, require more frequent feedings of special foods designed for fry.

Question:  How Much ? 


As for how much food to feed, a good rule of thumb is to feed no more than the fish will consume completely in less than five minutes. When in doubt, underfeed! You can always give them another small feeding if necessary. However, if you overfeed the uneaten food will produce by-products which can be harmful to the fish. In the event you do overfeed, promptly remove the uneaten food using a siphon or net.


As a final note, keep in mind that not only the amount but the type of food is important. Check the related links for a reference table that shows the proper type of diet for most popular aquarium fish.


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