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- Ventilation  ,fans and openings  : 


Access inside the vivarium is required for the purpose of maintenance, to take care of the plants and animals, or for the addition and withdrawal of food. In the case of some animals, a frontal opening is preferable because accessing a vivarium from the top is associated by some species with the presence of predators and can therefore cause unnecessary stress.


Ventilation is not just important for circulating air, but also for preventing the growth of mold and development and spread of harmful bacteria. This is especially important in warm, humid vivariums. The traditional method consists of placing a suction fan (or ventilation slits) at a low level and another exhaust fan at a higher level, which allows the continual circulation of fresh air.

Vivarium ventilation and air circulation : 



 Over the years I have moved away from internal fans, and moved to active but tuned air ventilation in stock Exoterra and Zoomed terrariums. I’ve found I can maintain more realistic vivarium temperature and humidity values by using low speed silent exhaust fans to both cool lighting fixtures and draw air through the vivarium using variable sized upper vents.


I have maintained the information on the circulation fan designs I have used in the past at the bottom of this page for those of you interested in replicating the magnetic mount and camouflaged fan designs. Air circulation can aid in clearing the vivarium glass for better viewing and it may also be beneficial to certain plants.


Vivarium  & Terrarium .. 

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 Basic requirements for every vivarium : 


1- Tank .

2- Environmental controls :  - Heaters .

                                                    - Lighting . 

                                                    -Humidity and misting system  .

                                                    -Ventilation  ,fans and openings .

3- Other equipments , supples and accessories .

4- Decoration materials .


Venting a custom vivarium hood


This was the first custom vivarium hood that I made that leveraged a blow hole for active hood and vivarium venting. The hood has weatherstripping running the perimeter of the top to create a tight seal with the vivarium. This allows for air to be drawn through the vivarium starting under the door on the stock vivarium vent, moving up the front glass and out the custom top vent that runs along the front of the viv. This air is then exhausted from the hood, thus circulating air through the vivarium while cooling the LED lighting that is installed within the hood. A piece of cut glass was used to manage the vent width, allowing me to control the airflow through the viv while maintaining adequate cooling of the light fixtures.


Here are a series of images of the installation:

Fan mount

Front vent

Low profile hood

installed lighting

installed blow hole

Product Review :  Lucky Reptile Terra Fan Set


Product Information


Lucky Reptile Terra Fan Set consists of 2 temperature controlled fans to help circulate the air in your reptile vivarium, keeping it from stagnating and ensuring old air is ventilated and new air is drawn in due to the displacement.


While most reptile equipment is geared towards creating heat, sometimes your vivarium can become too hot, and this Lucky Reptile Terra Fan Set can help with that, producing a cooling breeze and aiding ventilation.


A low voltage mini fan system, you can add controllers to control the temperature of the fans. Depending on the temperature the fan speed will decrease or increase to allow for optimal conditions inside the terrarium.


The base set consists of a transformer and two fans in order that one fan can be used to blow fresh air into the terrarium while the other pulls out the old air. This way an optimal circulation is ensured.


Product characteristics at a glance:


  • Low noise low voltage fan.

  • Temperature controlled fan speed.

  • Ensures proper ventilation of the terrarium.

  • Prevents foul air.

  • The fans are excellent for animals that need high air circulation like chameleons.

  • One transformer can be used with up to 4 fans.

 Above is a schematic shown the fan in the top of the lighting hood or terrarium cover and how circulate the air insie the paludarium .. You can use the fan to exhaust or deliver air to the tank .

 A top view of lighting hood and fan a lot of hobbies try to hit two targets by using fans : get rid of the light bulbs heat and use it to warm up the paludarium or terrarium and vent there tank .. .. 

A DIY ( Do-it-yourself ) combination of fan and pipes to instal the fan outside the tank ..

Inside the tank

Outside the tank




 Very few companies marketing the terrarium and vivarium fans which is already accepted to apply in the paludarium .

courtesy to : lucky reptiles 



- Ventilation : 


  Air Circulation : 


Though its importance is frequently understated, the free movement of air to and from the enclosure is essential to maintaining a healthy paludarium environment. Particularly in a densely stocked system, stale air might produce foul odors, promote the growth of mold and mildew, and/or lead to respiratory illness of reptiles and other creatures.


In properly ventilated enclosures, fresh, cool air is drawn in as warm air rises, expands, and escapes. At least 10% of the lower one-third back or sides of the enclosure should be opened by perforation or grating. Fully, or nearly, airtight enclosures will most likely need one or more fans. Directing airflow from fans towards the face of the enclosure can improve viewing by reducing condensation on the front panel. Case mount "computer" fans with protective grills can be built directly into the enclosure walls. Small "house" fans can be used, and may be positioned to blow across an open or screened top. Creative use of oscillating house fans can confer aesthetic, as well as environmental, benefits to a display by generating gusts of "wind" that rustle foliage and send small ripples across the water surface.


Fans and Ventilators :


It is rare to find a complete fans and ventilator system design for paludarium , usually using the same for terrarium and paludarium .. 

It is popular now to use the PC  ( computers ) fan and with simple DIY you can install it in the paludarium .. 

Please note the Terra Fan Set comes with 2 Fans.

- Ready made Vivarium : 
  Usually in all ready made and completed vivarium kit there is a provision to put fans or it come equipped with openings for fans .. You can choose to close or cancel these openings to customize the terrarium for your needs ..

Types and Methods of ventilation : 

- Do-It-Yourself type vivarium : 

    In this type you should put in your consideration the ventilation requirements for the animal(s) you want to keep - chameleons is different than dart frogs -  in ventilation requirements .. 

      Al lot of openings , shape colors and sizes sold nowadays in the market and you can select from .. 

       You can also use the UPVC pipes as air duct to reach areas want to be vented .. 


Openings and fans used for vivarium .. Also it is hard to control the tiny insects which come in/out the tank 

We can also claqssified the ventilations methods into three types : 


- Holes , screen and  openings :


It is cheap  and simple but not controled and also you can not pump the air for long distance inside the bigger vivarium ..

 So , this method used as a basic ventilation method .. 


- Internal Fans : 


Can be mounted inside the vivarium to circulate the air inside , but not recomended due to it is need to open the vivarium to maintan , also to be protected from animals inside .. 

External fans : 


It is the most popular among the hobbyists , due it can be maintan from outside the tank , Usually easy to fix and control .. 

 A flexiable pipe with fan as a part of DIY Project  

Three Fans ( Which usually DC silent fans - same used in computers and electronic devices ).

 External fan deliver the air by PVC pipe elbow .

Typical external fans ..

- Other equipments , supples and accessories   :

 Other equipments including aquatic , filters , heaters , air pump .. can be used in special cases ( Like False bottom Tank type vivarium we will know more about it in the next section of vivarium construction and set up .. )   

 Basic requirements for every vivarium : 


1- Tank .

2- Environmental controls :  - Heaters .

                                                    - Lighting . 

                                                    -Humidity and misting system  .

                                                    -Ventilation  ,fans and openings .

3- Other equipments , supples and accessories .

4- Decoration materials .


 - Other Fresh water  equipments might be used in vivarium :


1- Heater .

2- Filter.

3- Aeration .


The Lever to change the termpreature setting 



Electrical wire 





Light indicator when the Heater work 

 Submersible heater : Can be used fully merged in the water for heating any water basin or false bottom tank 

Aquatic wire heater also can be used fully merged .. Be carefull and recognize between wire heater used for vivarium and areas and also with this aquatic one .. 

Filters : If you have large water areas for some creatures like Iguana , giant african lizards or amphibians  which required a large aquatic area you can use these filters which is same used in aquarium ..

Measuring Range: Temperature -58°F to 158°F  Relative Humidity 10%Rh - 99%Rh
Accuracy: Temperature +/- 1.8°F or +/- 1°C  Relative Humidty +/- 5%
Display Resolution: Temperature 0.2°F / 0.1°C  Relative Humidty 1%
Battery: AG10 Watch Battery(Included)
48" Probe length

Below :  Internal filters  also can be used fully submersible  but you need a flexible hose to make a water fall in the land area of the paludarium .. but tis can be usaful when you don't have or limited  space for the external filter .. 

Canister or external filter parts and components 


 - Canister Filters : 

     Power filters are probably the most widely used aquarium filters - and for good reason. They are very easy to use and provide excellent biological, chemical, and mechanical filtration. They are designed to hang off the back of your paludarium and are the perfect filter for most popular tanks sizes housing a variety of tropical fishes. Replaceable filter cartridges make maintenance simple and convenient. Newer models feature either a biological filter pad or BIO-wheel to provide extra pollution removing power.above all that the water fall which we can make it if we direct the water discharge to a rock arrangment . 

External or canister filters can be used in vivariums also when you introduce a large aquatic areas 

 Different sizes and shapes and models of devices for measuring the humidity and the temperature , the most common is the dual devices which can measure both temperature and humidity 

Its Essential for you to know what is happen in your Paludarium , knowing the degree of humidity and the temperature is very important in daily basis to know if the animals feel comfortable .. Also to control the these two important factors and the difference in summer and winter or increase the warm levels to met some important behaviors for the animals like breeding season ..

 - Hygrometers & Thermometers :


For monitoring terrarium temperature levels.

For monitoring terrarium humidity levels.



Product Review : 

Vivarium Electronics TH-100 thermometer/Hygrometer features a hard to find temperature/humidity sensor on a single external probe.  Super convenient for reptile and amphibian habitat monitoring and other uses.  

  • Large, easy to read .75" tall LCD numerals

  • Temperature and Relative Humidity displayed

  • Resettable MIN/MAX display for Temperature and Relative Humidity

  • F° or C° operation

  • 48" remote probe wire- Temperature and Relative Humidity in a single probe!

Natural Terrarium Supplies

Below : Some of hobbyist can collect the natural materials from their environment or travel to the forest, desert or farm to collect, woods,rocks or  plants for their projects 

Environment can provide a lot of materials that can be used for paludariums also it is a good inspiration resource for new ideas to decorate and terascape and aquascape the paludarium. 


 Artifical plants , rocks available in most of the pet shop or can be ordered on-line 



   Several types of materials used in the paludariums we can devide it to two types : 


1- Natural materials : 

    Which collected from nature , like bog , drift cork wood , sand and rocks , some plants stems .. etc 


2- Artificial materials : 

      which manufactured in factories using plastic and rubber .. 


 Basic requirements for every vivarium : 


1- Tank .

2- Environmental controls :  - Heaters .

                                                    - Lighting . 

                                                    -Humidity and misting system  .

                                                    -Ventilation  ,fans and openings .

3- Other equipments , supples and accessories .

4- Decoration materials .


- Decoration materials  : 

 An Artificial hide place for reptiles .


Below a Bearded dragon reptile basking above artificial basking place .

Background built using natural rocks and sands by using foam and base of wood  .

 Cork bark  can be used to keep humidity and a very good decoration materials .. it is natural  bark of trees

Nice vivarium decoration using mix of natural and artificial materials ..

Drift wood 

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