top of page


Toxins :


All snakes, including pythonids, are descended from a venomous ancestor.[8] Although the mandibularand maxillary glands of pythonids are primarily mucus-secreting, they also produce small quantities of toxins that are also known from venomous lizards and caenophidian snakes, including three-finger toxins (3FTx), lectin toxins, and veficolin toxins. The presence of not only these, but also other toxins in the snake Cylindrophis ruffus, as well as iguanians and monitor lizards, indicates that the production of small amounts of toxins by pythonids is a relic of once better-developed venom system that pythonids and boids have down-regulated, presumably because they developed powerful constriction as an alternative means of killing their prey, leaving them with little need for a venom.[9]

List of pythonid species and subspecies


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


This is a list of all genera, species and subspecies of the family Pythonidae, otherwise referred to as pythonids or pythons. It follows the taxonomy of McDiarmid et al. (1999),[1] which is available online through ITIS.,[2] updated with additional recently described species.[3][4][5]

Pythonidae :

Scientific classification







Fitzinger, 1826


Indian python, P. molurus

  • Antaresia

    • Antaresia childreni, Children's python

    • Antaresia maculosa, Spotted python

    • Antaresia perthensis, Pygmy python

    • Antaresia stimsoni, Stimson's python

  • Apodora, Papuan python

    • Apodora papuana, Papuan python

  • Aspidites

    • Aspidites melanocephalus, Black-headed python

    • Aspidites ramsayi, Woma

  • Bothrochilus, Bismark ringed python

    • Bothrochilus boa, Bismark ringed python

  • Leiopython, D'Albert's water python

    • Leiopython albertisii, D'Albert's water python

    • Leiopython bennettorum, Bennett's white-lipped python

    • Leiopython biakensis, Biak white-lipped python

    • Leiopython fredparkeri, Parker's white-lipped python

    • Leiopython hoserae, southern white-lipped python

    • Leiopython huonensis, Huon white-lipped python

  • Liasis

    • Liasis fuscus, Brown water python

    • Liasis mackloti, Macklot's python

      • Liasis mackloti mackloti, Macklot's python

      • Liasis mackloti savuensis, Savu python

    • Liasis olivaceus, Olive python

      • Liasis olivaceus barroni, Pilbara olive python

      • Liasis olivaceus olivaceus, Olive python

  • Morelia

    • Morelia amethistina, Amethystine python

    • Morelia clastolepis, Moluccan Python

    • Morelia boeleni, Boelen's python

    • Morelia bredli, Bredl's python

    • Morelia carinata, Rough-scaled python

    • Morelia kinghorni, Kinghorn's python

    • Morelia nauta, Tanimbar python

    • Morelia oenpelliensis, Oenpelli python

    • Morelia spilota, Carpet pythons

      • Morelia spilota cheynei, Jungle carpet python

      • Morelia spilota imbricata, Southwestern carpet python

      • Morelia spilota mcdowelli, Coastal carpet python

      • Morelia spilota metcalfei, Inland carpet python

      • Morelia spilota spilota, Diamond python

      • Morelia spilota variegata, Northwestern carpet python

    • Morelia tracyae, Halmahera python

    • Morelia viridis, Green tree python

  • Python, Pythons

    • Python anchietae, Angolan python

    • Python bivittatus, Burmese python

      • Python bivittatus progschai, Dwarf Burmese python

    • Python breitensteini, Borneo short-tailed python

    • Python brongersmai, Red blood python

    • Python curtus, Sumatran short-tailed python

    • Python kyaiktiyo, Myanmar short-tailed python

    • Python molurus, Indian python

      • Python molurus molurus, Indian python

    • Python regius, Royal python

    • Python reticulatus, Reticulated python

    • Python sebae, African rock python

      • Python sebae natalensis, Natal rock python

      • Python sebae sebae, African rock python

    • Python timoriensis, Timor python



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The Pythonidae, commonly known simply as pythons, from the Greek word python (πυθων), are afamily of nonvenomous snakes found in Africa, Asia, and Australia. Among its members are some of the largest snakes in the world. Eight genera and 31 species are currently recognized.[2]


Indian python, Python molurus

Scientific classification








Fitzinger, 1826


  • Pythonoidia - Fitzinger, 1826

  • Pythonoidei - Eichwald, 1831

  • Holodonta - Müller, 1832

  • Pythonina - Bonaparte, 1840

  • Pythophes - Fitzinger, 1843

  • Pythoniens - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844

  • Holodontes - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844

  • Pythonides - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844

  • Pythones - Cope, 1861

  • Pythonidae - Cope, 1864

  • Peropodes - Meyer, 1874

  • Chondropythonina - Boulenger, 1879

  • Pythoninae - Boulenger, 1890

  • Pythonini - Underwood & Stimson, 1990

  • Moreliini - Underwood & Stimson, 1990[1]

Geographic range


Pythons are found in sub-Saharan Africa, Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Burma, southern China, Southeast Asia, and from the Philippines southeast through Indonesia to New Guinea and Australia.[1]


In the United States, an introduced population of Burmese pythons, Python molurus bivittatus, has existed as an invasive species in the Everglades National Park since the late 1990s.[3]


Conservation :


Many species have been hunted aggressively, which has decimated some, such as the Indian python,Python molurus.


Behavior :


Most members of this family are ambush predators, in that they typically remain motionless in a camouflaged position, and then strike suddenly at passing prey. They will generally not attack humans unless startled or provoked, although females protecting their eggs can be aggressive. Reports of attacks on human beings were once more common in South and Southeast Asia, but are now quite rare.




















Feeding :


Pythons use their sharp, backward-curving teeth, four rows in the upper jaw, two in the lower, to grasp prey which is then 


killed by constriction; after an animal has been grasped to restrain it, the python quickly wraps a number of coils around it. Death occurs primarily by asphyxiation; some research has suggested that pressures produced during constriction may cause cardiac arrest by interfering with blood flow,[4] but this hypothesis has not been confirmed.


Larger specimens usually eat animals about the size of a house cat, but larger food items are known; some large Asian species have been known to take down adult deer, and the African rock python,Python sebae, has been known to eat antelope. All prey is swallowed whole, and may take several days or even weeks to fully digest.


Contrary to popular belief, even the larger species, such as the reticulated python, P. reticulatus, do not crush their prey to

Black-headed python,
Aspidites melanocephalus

Python skull

death; in fact, prey is not even noticeably deformed before it is swallowed. The speed with which the coils are applied is impressive and the force they exert may be significant, but death is caused by suffocation, with the victim not being able to move its ribs to breathe while it is being constricted.[5][6][7]



Females lay eggs (oviparous). This sets them apart from the family Boidae (boas), most of which bear live young (ovoviviparous). After they lay their eggs, females typically incubate them until they hatch. This is achieved by causing the muscles to "shiver", which raises the temperature of the body to a certain degree, and thus that of the eggs. Keeping the eggs at a constant temperature is essential for healthy embryo development. During the incubation period, females will not eat and only leave to bask to raise their body temperature.

Captivity :


Most species in this family are available in the exotic pet trade. However, caution must be exercised with the larger species, as they can be dangerous; rare cases of large specimens killing their owners have been documented.[10]



Genera  :

Taxonomy :


Pythons are more closely related to boas than to any other snake family. Boulenger (1890) considered this group to be a subfamily (Pythoninae) of the family Boidae (boas).[1]

For the external links , refrences  click here to read the full wikipedia article 

The Most Popular Species of Pythons 

General Videos :

Ball Pythons  ( Python regius, Royal python)


 PART one                             PART two                      PART three 

Burmese python  :


PART 1             PART  2         

Python (genus)


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Python, from the Greek word (πύθων/πύθωνας), is a genus of nonvenomous pythons[2] found in Africaand Asia. Until recently, seven extant species were recognised;[2] however, three subspecies have been promoted and a new species recognised. A member of this genus, P. reticulatus, is among the longest snake species and extant reptiles in the world.


Burmese python, Python bivittatus

Scientific classification








Daudin, 1803


  • Python Daudin, 1803

  • Constrictor Wagler, 1830

  • Enygrus Wagler, 1830

  • Engyrus Gray, 1831

  • Enygris Gray, 1842

  • Heleionomus Gray, 1842

  • Morelia Gray, 1842

  • Hortulia Gray, 1842

  • Asterophis Fitzinger, 1843

  • Liasis Duméril & Bibron, 1844

  • Simalia Gray, 1849

  • Aspidopython Meyer, 1874

  • Aspidoboa Sauvage, 1884

  • Hypapistes Ogilby, 1891[1]

Geographic range :


In Africa, members of the genus are found in the tropics south of theSahara, but not in the extreme south-western tip of southern Africa (Western Cape) or in Madagascar. In Asia, they are found fromBangladesh, Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, including theNicobar Islands, through Myanmar, east to Indochina, southernChina, Hong Kong and Hainan, as well as in the Malayan region ofIndonesia and the Philippines.[1]


Some suggest that P. molurus and P. sebae have the potential to be problematic invasive species in South Florida.[3] The United States Department of Agriculture reports that only Python molurus bivittatus is an invasive species in the United States.[4] In early 2016, after a culling operation yielded 106 of the animals, Everglades park officials suggested that "thousands" may live within the park, and that the species has been breeding there for some years. More recent data suggest that these pythons would not withstand winter climates north of Florida, contradicting previous research suggesting a more significant geographic potential range.[5][6]

Species :



Python anchietae

Uses :


Python skin is used to make clothing, such as vests, belts, boots and shoes, or fashion accessories, such as handbags. It may also be stretched and formed as the sound board of some string musical instruments, such as the erhu spike-fiddle, sanxian and the sanshin lutes.[12][13]


As pets :


Many Python species, such as P. regius, P. brongersmai, P. bivittatus and P. reticulatus, are popular to keep as pets due to their ease of care, docile temperament, and vibrant colors, with some rare mutations having been sold for several thousands of dollars. Despite controversy that has arisen from media reports, with proper safety procedures pet pythons are relatively safe to own,[14] and deaths associated with them are isolated compared to other domestic animals, such as dogs and horses.[13][15]



Ball pythons commonly exhibit mutations, such as this "Spider" morph, and are popular among snake keepers.

For the external links , refrences  click here to read the full wikipedia article 

Two carpet pythons battle it out while dangling from a roof

National Geographic Super Snake Anacondas & Pythons

World's Deadliest - Python Eats Antelope 

Burmese pythons make great pets!!!!!!!!!!!

Further Reading : 

-  Tales of Giant Snakes: A Historical Natural History of Anacondas and Pythons 1st Edition. Edition


by John C. Murphy  (Author), Robert W. Henderson (Author)

- Pythons and Boas (Watts Library) Library Binding– September, 2002


by Gloria G. Schlaepfer (Author), Mary Lou Samuelson (Author)

Many   books you can find in the  Internet based libraries and bookshops like ( Click Here ) ..


But first look for the best prices at Book 

The Debate Over Pythons as Pets


courtesy to :


Pythons ride a losing streak as debate rages over their status as pets.

New York City, January 1997: Michael Hano, vice president of the New York Herpetological Society (NYHS), receives a call from a woman who wants a nine-foot snake removed from her home. It seems that her son no longer wants his pet Burmese python. The animal hasn’t been given food or water in nearly two months, and the woman and her son are too terrified to open the cage’s lid. That night Hano retrieves the snake, who is thin and suffering from pneumonia. “Between Burmese pythons and iguanas,” he reports, “we average about one call a day like this one.”


Commonly attaining lengths up to 17 feet and often exceeding 100 pounds, wild Burmese pythons inhabit the lush forests and lowlands of Southeast Asia and the Indo-Australian archipelago. Like other snakes in their phylogenetic family, they use strong, constricting muscles to kill prey. The species’ distinct markings, red-brown blotches outlined in gold against a muted background ranging from pale yellow to soft gray, make them popular in the skin trade. Their size makes their captive-bred counterparts popular among a growing breed of pet owners.


Scales tax :


To many, Burmese and other giant snakes, such as African rock and reticulated pythons and boa constrictors, represent the ultimate in snake keeping. The purchase is the easy part; in most towns in the United States, giant snakes readily are found at pet shops and breeder expos. What happens to them next is a bit of a crap shoot, many winding up victims of negligent owners who have been misinformed about their new pet. Whatever the reason—from “My new landlord doesn’t allow reptiles” to “They told me if I kept him in a small tank he wouldn’t grow”—zoos, animal control agencies and herpetological societies are asked to place these unwanted pets daily.


Says Ward Stone, wildlife pathologist for the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC), “We’ve documented a disturbing trend in the abandonment of non-native reptiles. They are irresponsibly sold to people who have little or no idea of their housing requirements or care. Many people simply abandon the animals to fend for themselves.” In one of many recent incidents in the Albany, NY, area, for example, a landlord found a Burmese python in a cardboard box in a vacated apartment.


Stone expresses concern about environmental threats from non-native species. “Very little is known about snake diseases, and there is a good chance that parasites could impact native populations,” he says. This scenario is of particular concern in warm states such as Florida, where various species of ex-pet reptiles—including green iguanas, boa constrictors and, yes, Burmese pythons—already have established themselves in the wild. Given such consequences, it’s no wonder that irresponsible owners have given themselves, and snakes, a bad name.


Unarmed and Dangerous?


Last October, a 19-year-old Bronx man was found dead in his apartment, his 45-pound, 11-foot Burmese python entwined around his body. Police sources theorized that the animal mistook the victim for food as the man prepared to feed his pet a chicken. The snake was not kept in a cage. At the family’s request, the python was euthanized.


Although giant pythons have been involved in fewer than 10 fatalities in the past decade—the rate is higher for human deaths involving horses and dogs—these tragic accidents could have been prevented had owners practiced proper procedures.


At least two people should be present when handling or feeding a giant python; the animal must be contained in a safe enclosure when fed, and food should never be offered by hand. Explains Peter Taylor, chief reptile keeper at St. Louis Zoo, St. Louis, MO, “The scent (of food) in the air elicits a snake’s feeding response. All of a sudden their senses are on alert, and the next thing that moves could be something to eat.” As a result, countless owners have sustained the jabbing bites of a large python at feeding time. They may have neglected to wash their hands after handling food items, or chose to dangle the rabbit or chicken manually.


The potential for injury is increased if the snake is at large, in a position to follow through with the constriction component of the feeding response. Says Taylor, “It’s surprising that the specimens who have killed adult men have not been really large. But once a snake gets around the upper body, a person can become unconscious in minutes, if their carotid artery gets cut off or if they panic.”


Large pythons are capable of blocking blood flow when carried around their owner’s neck, an often-seen method of transport during warmer months. “It is completely ill-advised to be walking around with a big snake,” says Taylor. For one, it becomes more difficult to anticipate an animal’s behavior. “Once they’re out in the warmth and bright light, there may be some release of a snake’s captive predictability.” Quicker reactions and increased tongue flicking and movements illustrate this crisper defensive response.


Snake-wearing ambassadors do a good job of showing the world the worst side of pet keeping. Says Taylor, “Some see their reptiles as an extension of their ego, and think about the potential reactions of other people rather than about the animal. They are also forcing their animals upon the considerable percentage of the population that is uncomfortable with snakes.”


Snake Ayes


Although they are not required by law to screen buyers, knowledgeable pet store employees do take time to counsel potential owners. Says James Favia of Glen Ellyn Pet Center in Glen Ellyn, IL, “Some stores want to make a fast dollar and neglect to tell the customer how large these snakes get. When we sell a reptile, we let the person know about care and long-term growth. Often we’ll say, ‘This is really not a good choice for you,’ and recommend another.” Favia also informs customers of local regulations; in Illinois, for example, any snake more than 6 feet must be registered.


The Escondido, CA-based American Federation of Herpetoculturists (AFH) also has gone to bat for giant pythons with its campaign to foster responsible ownership. The non-profit organization recommends that vendors refuse the sale of large constrictors to minors without parental consent, and that buyers are given information on their care at the time of purchase.


The group also finds itself battling legislation restricting the keeping of reptiles, and members feel their avocation is targeted unduly. Although the controversy has pitted animal protection groups and public officials against reptile owners, a number of “insiders” advocate legislation.


NYHS’ Hano believes the reptile community should consider policing itself, working with legislators to draw up guidelines for appropriate species. “A permit system that’s not too problematic would be better than what we have now. Perhaps this would preclude a blanket law making all snakes over a certain size illegal. Without a system, the increasing numbers of irresponsible owners make additional incidents inevitable.”


Says DEC’s Stone, who has had to retrieve many abandoned giant snakes, “The recent (human) fatality should be a stimulus to look at licensing these large constrictors.”


As debate rages, snakes continue to be purchased and kept irresponsibly, and animal groups continue to receive calls about unwanted reptiles daily. Several sources for this story expressed concern over “another story about how dangerous big snakes are.” But this article is not about “vicious” pythons; it is about irresponsible human beings. Hopefully, with increased educational and legislative efforts, the story will be different next time around.


Snake Preview :


Let the Burmese python buyer beware. NYHS’ Michael Hano provides a rundown of reptile requirements:

* Price tags vary, from a low of $35 at breeder expos to $200 at some pet stores for an 18-inch hatchling.

* Snakes should be housed in an easy-to-clean enclosure that’s tough enough to support this strong species. Responsible owners often opt for custom-made cages of hard plastic or waterproof plywood. Minimum size requirements of 8 X 3 X 3 feet ensure space enough for a 15-foot adult to turn around easily. Keep cage tops and doors secure—snakes are notorious escape artists.

* Pythons have a penchant for bathing, so captive-raised animals should have a water bowl in which they can submerge. A 30-gallon container half-filled with water does the trick.

* What’s for dinner? A three- to five-pound rabbit or chicken once weekly, if you’re an average giant python. Pet-store prices can add up; some owners shop at live poultry markets.

* The last word on giant pythons as pets? Says Hano, “There are a wide variety of reptiles and amphibians available that are just as beautiful and fascinating as giant constrictors. You’re not missing out by not having one of the largest species in the world.”


Other Pythons  :  Part One    Part Two 

bottom of page