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Bromeliaceae .. 


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The Bromeliaceae (the bromeliads) are a family of monocot flowering plantsof around 3,170 species native mainly to the tropical Americas, with a few species found in the American subtropics and one in tropical west Africa,Pitcairnia feliciana.[2]


They are among the basal families within the Poales and are unique because they are the only family within the order that has septal nectaries and inferior ovaries.[3] These inferior ovaries characterize the Bromelioideae, a subfamily of the Bromeliaceae.[4] The family includes both epiphytes, such as Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides), and terrestrial species, such as the pineapple(Ananas comosus). Many bromeliads are able to store water in a structure formed by their tightly-overlapping leaf bases. However, the family is diverse enough to include the tank bromeliads, grey-leaved epiphyte Tillandsiaspecies that gather water only from leaf structures called trichomes, and a large number of desert-dwelling succulents.


The largest bromeliad is Puya raimondii, which reaches 3–4 m tall in vegetative growth with a flower spike 9–10 m tall, and the smallest is Spanish moss.

So , The Bromeliad are so Important in Vivarium tank with high aesthetic values as a key terrascape plant .. 
So What  is Bromeliad ?


Scientific classification :








Pineapple, a bromeliad

Subfamiles :

  • Bromelioideae

  • Pitcairnioideae

  • Tillandsioideae

Description :


Bromeliads are plants that are adapted to a number of climates. Foliage takes different shapes, from needle-thin to broad and flat, symmetrical to irregular, spiky to soft. The foliage, which usually grows in a rosette, is widely patterned and colored. Leaf colors range from maroon, through shades of green, to gold. Varieties may have leaves with red, yellow, white and cream variations. Others may be spotted with purple, red, or cream, while others have different colors on the tops and bottoms of the leaves.


The inflorescences produced by bromeliads are also regarded as considerably more diverse than any other plant family. Some flower spikes may reach 10 meters tall, while others only measure 2–3 mm across. Upright stalks may be branched or simple with spikes retaining their color from two weeks up to 12 months, depending on species. In some species, the flower remains unseen, growing deep in the base of the plants.


Root systems vary according to plant type. Terrestrial bromeliad species have complex root systems that gather water and nutrients, while epiphytic bromeliads only grow hard, wiry roots to attach themselves to trees and rocks.


Some bromeliads are faintly scented, while others are heavily perfumed. Blooms from the species Tillandsia cyanea have a fragrance resembling that of clove spice.


One study found 175,000 bromeliads per hectare (2.5 acres) in one forest; that many bromeliads can sequester 50,000 liters (more than 13,000 gallons) of water.


A wide variety of organisms takes advantage of the pools of water trapped by bromeliads. A study of 209 plants from the Ecuadorian lowlands identified 11,219 animals, representing more than 300 distinct species, many of which are found only on bromeliads. Examples include some species of ostracods, small salamanders about 2.5 cm (0.98 in) in length, and tree frogs. Jamaicanbromeliads are home to Metopaulias depressus, a reddish-brown crab 2 cm (0.79 in) across, which has evolved social behavior to protect its young from predation by Diceratobasis macrogaster, a species of damselfly whose larvaelive in bromeliads. Some bromeliads even form homes for other species of bromeliads.[5]



World Bromeliad Distribution





An epiphytic bromeliad














Distribution :


Plants in the Bromeliaceae are widely represented in their natural climates across the Americas. One species can be found in Africa.[6] They can be found at altitudes from sea level to 4200 meters, from rainforests to deserts. Approximately half the species are epiphytes, some are lithophytes, and some are terrestrial. Accordingly, these plants can be found in the Andeanhighlands, from northern Chile to Colombia, in the Sechura Desert of coastal Peru, in the cloud forests of Central and South America, in southern United States from southern Virginia to Florida to Texas, and in far southern Arizona.










Bromeliad at US Botanic Garden










Bromeliads growing on telephone lines in Bolivia










Ecology :


Bromeliads often serve as phytotelmata, accumulating water between their leaves. The aquatic habitat created as a result is host to a diverse array of invertebrates, especially aquatic insect larvae.[7] These bromeliad invertebrates benefit their hosts by increasing nitrogen uptake into the plant.[8][9][10]


Evolution :


Bromeliads are among the more recent plant groups to have emerged. The greatest number of primitive species resides in the Andean highlands of South America, where they originated in the tepuis of the Guyana Shield.[11] The most basal genus, Brocchinia, is endemic to these tepuis, and is placed as the sister group to the remaining generain the family.[12] The west African species Pitcairnia feliciana is the only bromeliad not endemic to the Americas, and is thought to have reached Africa via long-distance dispersal about 12 million years ago.[11]


Adaptations :


Bromeliads are able to live in a vast array of environmental conditions due to their many adaptations. Trichomes, in the form of scales or hairs, allow bromeliads to capture water in cloud forests and help to reflect sunlight in desert environments.[13] Some bromeliads have also developed an adaptation known as the tank habit, which involves them forming a tightly bound structure with their leaves that helps to capture water and nutrients in the absence of a well-developed root system.[13] Bromeliads also use crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis to create sugars. This adaptation allows bromeliads in hot or dry climates to open their stomates at night rather than during the day, which reduces water loss.[14] ..


Classification :


The family Bromeliaceae is currently placed in the order Poales.


Subfamilies :


The family Bromeliaceae is organized into eight subfamilies:[15]

  • Brocchinioideae

  • Lindmanioideae

  • Tillandsioideae

  • Hechtioideae

  • Navioideae

  • Pitcairnioideae

  • Puyoideae

  • Bromelioideae






Bromeliaceae were originally split into three subfamilies: Bromelioideae, Tillandsioideae, and Pitcairnioideae based on morphological characters.[16] However, molecular evidence has revealed that while Bromelioideae and Tillandsioideae are monophyletic, Pitcairnioideae is, in fact, paraphyletic[17] and should be split into six subfamilies: Brocchinioideae, Lindamanioideae, Hechtioideae, Navioideae, Pitcairnioideae, and Puyoideae.[18]


Brocchinioideae is defined as the most basal branch of Bromeliaceae based on both morphological and molecular evidence, namely genes in chloroplast DNA.[19]


Lindmanioideae is the next most basal branch distinguished from the other subfamilies by convolute sepals and chloroplast DNA.[20]


Hechtioideae is also defined based on analyses of chloroplast DNA; similar morphological adaptations to arid environments also found in other groups are attributed to convergent evolution.


Navioideae is split from Pitcairnioideae based on its cochlear sepals and chloroplast DNA.[21]


Puyoideae has been re-classified multiple times and its monophyly remains controversial according to analyses of chloroplast DNA.[20]


Genera :  


-Acanthostachys Klotzsch

- Aechmea Ruiz & Pav.


-Ananas Mill. — Includes thepineapple.

-Androlepis Brongn. ex Houllet

-raeococcus Brongn.

-Billbergia Thunb.

-Brewcaria L.B.Sm., Steyerm. &H.Rob

-Brocchinia Schult.f.

-Bromelia L.


-Canistrum E.Morren

-Catopsis Griseb.

-Connellia N.E.Br.

-Cottendorfia Schult.f.

-Cryptanthus Otto &A.Dietr.


-Deuterocohnia Mez

-Disteganthus Lem.

-Dyckia Schult.f.



-Encholirium Mart. exSchult.f.

-Fascicularia Mez

-Fernseea Baker

-Fosterella L.B.Sm.


-Greigia Regel

-Guzmania Ruiz & Pav.

-Hechtia Klotzsch

-Hohenbergia Schult.f.

-Hohenbergiopsis L.B.Sm.& Read

-Lindmania Mez

-Lymania Read

-Mezobromelia L.B.Sm.

-Navia Schult.f.

-Neoglaziovia Mez

-Neoregelia L.B.Sm.

-Nidularium Lem.

-Ochagavia Phil.



-Pitcairnia L'Her.

-Portea K. Koch

-Pseudaechmea L.B.Sm. &Read

-Pseudananas Hassl. exHarms

-Puya Molina

-Quesnelia Gaudich.


-Ronnbergia E.Morren &André


-Steyerbromelia L.B.Sm.

-Tillandsia L.


-Vriesia Lindl.

-Werauhia J.R.Grant

-Wittrockia Lindm.












Cultivation and uses :


Humans have been using bromeliads for thousands of years. The Incas, Aztecs, Maya and others used them for food, protection, fiber and ceremony, just as they are still used today. European interest began when Spanish conquistadors returned with pineapple, which became so popular as an exotic food that the image of the pineapple was adapted into European art and sculpture. In 1776, the species Guzmania lingulata was introduced to Europe, causing a sensation among gardeners unfamiliar with such a plant. In 1828, Aechmea fasciata was brought to Europe, followed by Vriesea splendens in 1840. These transplants were so successful, they are still among the most widely grown bromeliad varieties.


In the 19th century, breeders in Belgium, France and the Netherlands started hybridizing plants for wholesale trade. Many exotic varieties were produced until World War I, which halted breeding programs and led to the loss of some species. The plants experienced a resurgence of popularity after World War II. Since then, Dutch, Belgian and North American nurseries have greatly expanded bromeliad production.


Only one bromeliad, the pineapple (Ananas comosus), is a commercially important food crop. Bromelain, a common ingredient in meat tenderizer, is extracted from pineapple stems. Many other bromeliads are popular ornamental plants, grown as both garden and houseplants.


Collectors :


Édouard André was a French collector/explorer whose many discoveries of bromeliads in the Cordilleras of South America would be influential on horticulturists to follow. He served as a source of inspiration to 20th-century collectors, in particular Mulford B. Foster and Lyman Smith of the United States and Werner Rauh of Germany and Michelle Sullivan of Australia.


See also :


-List of foliage plant diseases (Bromeliaceae)


















References :


  •  Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x, retrieved 2010-12-10

  • Jump up^ Mabberley, D.J. (1997). The Plant Book. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Jump up^ Judd, Walter S. Plant systematics a phylogenetic approach. 3rd ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc., 2007.

  • Jump up^ Sajo, M. G. "Floral anatomy of Bromeliaceae, with particular reference to the epigyny and septal nectaries in commelinid monocots." Plant Systematics and Evolution 247 (2004): 215-31.

  • ^ Jump up to:a b "Pineapple Dreams", The Wild Side, Olivia Judson, The New York Times, March 18, 2008

  • Jump up^ Porembski, Stefan; Barthlott, Wilhelm (1999). "PITCAIRNIA FELICIANA: THE ONLY INDIGENOUS AFRICAN BROMELIAD". Harvard Papers in Botany 4 (1): 175–184.

  • Jump up^ Frank, J. H.; Lounibos, L. P. (2009-02-01). "Insects and allies associated with bromeliads: a review". Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews 1 (2): 125–153. doi:10.1163/187498308X414742. ISSN 1874-9836. PMC: 2832612.PMID 20209047.

  • Jump up^ Ngai, Jacqueline T.; Srivastava, Diane S. (2006-11-10). "Predators Accelerate Nutrient Cycling in a Bromeliad Ecosystem". Science 314 (5801): 963–963. doi:10.1126/science.1132598. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17095695.

  • Jump up^ Leroy, Céline; Corbara, Bruno; Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis (2009-09-01). "Ants mediate foliar structure and nitrogen acquisition in a tank-bromeliad". New Phytologist 183 (4): 1124–1133. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.02891.x.ISSN 1469-8137.

  • Jump up^ Romero, Gustavo Q.; Srivastava, Diane S. (2010-09-01). "Food-web composition affects cross-ecosystem interactions and subsidies". Journal of Animal Ecology 79 (5): 1122–1131. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2010.01716.x. ISSN 1365-2656.

  • ^ Jump up to:a b Givnish, Thomas J., Kendra C. Millam, Timothy M. Evans, Jocelyn C. Hall, J. C. Pires, Paul E. Berry, and Kenneth J. Sytsma. "Ancient vicariance or recent long-distance dispersal? Inferences about phylogeny and South American-African disjunctions in Raptaceae and Bromeliaceae based on ndhf sequence data." International Journal of Plant Science 165.4 (2004): 35-54.

  • Jump up^ Barfuss, Michael H., Rosabelle Samuel, Walter Till, and Todd F. Stuessy. "Phylogenetic relationships in subfamily Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae) based on DNA sequence data from seven plastid regions." American Journal of Botany 92.2 (2005): 337-51.

  • ^ Jump up to:a b Schulte, Katharina, Michael H. Barfuss, and Georg Zizka. "Phylogeny of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae) inferred from nuclear plastid DNA loci reveals the evolution of the tank habit within the subfamily." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 51 (2009): 327-39.

  • Jump up^ Rex, Martina, Kerstin Patzolt, Katharina Schulte, Georg Zizka, Roberto Vasquuez, Pierre L. Ibisch, and Kurt Weising. "AFLP analysis of genetic relationships in the genus Fosterella L.B. Smith (Pitcairnioideae, Bromeliaceae)." Genome 50 (2007): 90-105.

  • ^ Jump up to:a b Givnish, Thomas (2007). "Phylogeny, adaptive radiation, and historical biogeography of Bromeliaceae inferred from ndhF sequence data". Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany.

  • Jump up^ Smith LB, Downs RJ (1974). "Flora neotropica: monograph. 14.(Bromeliaceae)". New York Botanical Garden.

  • Jump up^ Terry, Randall (1997). "Examination of subfamilial phylogeny in Bromeliaceae using comparative sequencing of the plastid locus ndhF". American Journal of Botany.

  • Jump up^ Zanella, Camila (2012). "Genetics, evolution and conservation of Bromeliaceae". Genetics and Molecular Biology.

  • Jump up^ Horres, Ralf (2000). "Molecular phylogenetics of Bromeliaceae: evidence from trnL (UAA) intron sequences of the chloroplast genome". Plant Biology.

  • ^ Jump up to:a b Givnish, Thomas (2011). "Phylogeny, adaptive radiation, and historical biogeography in Bromeliaceae: insights from an eight-locus plastid phylogeny". American Journal of Botany.

  • Jump up^ Crayn, Darren (2004). "Multiple origins of crassulacean acid metabolism and the epiphytic habit in the Neotropical family Bromeliaceae". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  • Jump up^ André, Édouard François. "Bromeliaceae Andreanae. Description et histoire des Bromeliacees recoltees dans La Colombie, L'Ecuador et Le Venezuela". Paris: Librairie Agricole; G. Masson, 1889














External links :


  • Bromeliad care information

  • Puya raimondii photos

  • The World Botanical Gardens

  • Bromeliads of Chile in Chileflora

  • The Brom-L Bromeliad Gallery The Photo Gallery of the (Virtual) World Wide Web Bromeliad Society

  • The New Bromeliad Taxon List A constantly updated list of current Bromeliad names and synonyms.

  • Palm trees, small palms, Cycads, Bromeliads and tropical plants Photos of Bromeliads and associated flora, with information on habitat and cultivation.

  • Luther, H. E. (2008) An Alphabetical List of Bromeliad Binomials, Eleventh Edition The Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, Sarasota, Florida. Published by The Bromeliad Society International.

  • Bromeliaceae in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, information retrieval. Published by Delta-intkey (2002-06-18)










Billbergia pyramidalis










Tillandsia airplants mounted on the bark of a cork oak










Tillandsia airplants mounted on the bark of a cork oak










Bromeliads Thailand 

Billbergia pyramidalis

Flower close-up

Neoregelia spp. & hybrids ( A bromeiads Species ) :

- 8 Interesting Facts about Neoregelias:



courtesy to : by Author: Melanie Dearringer

1) Neoregelia foliage is outstanding.


Neoregelias are a genus of bromeliad that is known for its incredible foliage. Unlike other bromeliads, they do not have showy inflorescence that rise above the foliage stealing the show. Instead, Neoregelias have tiny white, purple or blue flowers that are sunken down in the center of the rosette formed by the leaves. They often grow from underneath the reserve of water found in this central cup.


Neoregelias have a wide range of colors and markings on their leaves. They come in shades of red, orange, purple, green, white and any combination of those colors. They often blush bright red or pink towards the center of the plant as they begin to flower. Neoregelias also have variegation that can be banded, striped or speckled. The leaves are usually broad and leathery. Some have spines around their margins while others are smooth. There are roughly 100 identified species and 5,000 registered cultivars of Neoregelia.


2) Neoregelias love humidity.


Neoregelias are native to South America. They natively grow on trees and shrubs usually under the cover of canopy and in very moist climates. The plants’ love of humidity also make them excellent terrariums candidates. They tolerate the high humidity and still air much better than many other bromeliads. Their primarily leathery foliage is not as delicate and sensitive as other bromeliads, such as Vriesea. To keep a Neoregelia moist you can mist the leaves regularly or place a humidifier nearby.


3) Neoregelias require bright light.


The attractive colors found onNeoregelia foliage need just the right amount of light to perform their best. Each species has different requirements, but the general rule is that if the plant turns a deep green it is not getting enough light. However, if the plant turns yellowish or begins to have a bleached appearance it is getting too much direct light. Bright indirect light such as an eastern facing window is usually just right for a Neoregelia.


4) Neoregelias are technically air plants.


Neoregelias are naturally epiphytic. In their native habitats they grow attached to a substrate such as a tree trunk. When grown indoors they can be attached to a substrate or they can be potted in a container. Neoregelia has the amazing ability to grow two types of roots. When potted in a container it will grow roots adapted to conveying water and nutrients from the potting medium to the rest of the plant. When mounted the plant will grow hard anchor roots that do not take up water or nutrients.


When mounted, a Neoregelia uses its central cup or tank to takes in water and nutrients. While a potted, Neoregelia will take up water through the roots. You should keep the central tank filled even if the plant is potted. Use rainwater to fill the central cup so that minerals that are found in tap water do not build up on the plant. Be sure to flush out your bromeliad’s tank regularly to remove any stagnate water and prevent bacteria or fungus growth.


When potting a Neoregelia, use a well draining, light potting mix. Bark or potting mixes formulated for bromeliads or orchids will work well. Make sure the plant container never sits in water and the potting medium doesn’t stay soaking wet all of the time. Plants these bromeliads in small containers. It is recommended that a 4 inch pot be used for small varieties and 5-6 inch pot for larger. Neoreglias are not as top heavy as other bromeliads, so they do not necessarily need to be staked down.


5) Neoregelias flower only once.


Neoregelias will only flower once in their lifetime. Similar to most other bromeliads, they flower for several months and then the plant will begin to die. Don’t despair if the mother plant begins to fade. After flowering, the plant will put its energy into growing new offshoots or pups. Pups can be removed and repotted or mounted individually when they are about 1/3 to 1/2 the size of the mother plant.


6) Neoregelias don’t respond well to too much fertilizer.


Be warned that using too much fertilizer on a Neoregelia can result in the foliage turning green. When the most notable characteristic of a plant is its brilliant foliage, you don’t want to compromise that. It should be sufficient to simply add a little slow release fertilizer to the potting medium while planting the Neoregelia. However, the plant should do fine without any fertilizer. In addition to the loss of color, too much fertilizer can make the plant lanky in appearance and more prone to attacks from pests and disease.






7) There are many varieties of Neoregelia to choose from.


- Neoreglia carolinae ‘Tricolor’ is also commonly know as the blushing bromeliad. This plant can be found in just about any garden center, nursery or even grocery store florist. The plant has white and green striped leaves that can grow up to 12 inches long and an inch and a half wide. The leaves become bright red toward the center of the plant when it is flowering giving it its common name. The plant is fairly easy to care for but requires high humidity and bright light to thrive. There are also many other cultivars of this popular species.

Bromeliad Neoregelia Care Instructions

-Neoregelia chlorosticta is a compact upright growing plant. It has dark red coloring toward the middle of the plant and bright green splotches towards the outer edges of the leaves. This uniquely colored plant will do well in bright light.

-Neoregelia ‘Morado’ has broad leaves with dark green in the middle and white stripes. The leaves flush purple in the center when blooming. It can also develop dark banding on its leaves.

-Neoregelia ‘Pemiento’ is suggested for beginner bromeliad growers.  At maturity this plant can reach 8 inches high and 12 inches across. It is entirely red with bright red down the center and a deep burgundy red on the outer edges. The leaves are very glossy and serrated around the margins. This plant prefers warm temperatures and bright indirect light.

-Neoregelia ampullacea :



-Neoregelia  CHEERS :

Neoregelia  Liliputana :

- Neoregelia-tigrina :

A few varieties Neoregelias can be found at nurseries and garden centers. To have access to a bigger variety of cultivars you may have to find a store that specializes in tropical plants or consult a mail order or online retailer.


8) Neoregelias are a great addition to you collection!


Neoregelias are a fun plant to grow. They are easy to care for and will continually surprise you with their spectacular foliage. Each healthy plant will provide pups that you can enjoy for years.





 - How to Care for a Neoregelia 'Fireball' :


Neoregelia “Fireball” plants are Brazilian bromeliads that produce a massive cluster of plants. This tropical plant grows in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 10 through 12 with deep wine-red leaves reaching 4 to 6 inches tall. This tender perennial spreads up to 14 inches wide and produces small plantlets when grown in moist, humid locations. Occasionally this tropical plant flowers with a cluster of tiny blue flowers when given the proper care.


1- Mix together equal parts of peat moss, finely shredded bark and sand or perlite. "Fireball" plants grow best when their roots are cramped, so choose a plant pot smaller than the length across the leaves. Fill the container with the soilless mixture. Plant the bromeliad so the base of the plant is level with the soil.


2- Place the “Fireball” in an area with bright light for at least 4 to 5 hours per day. This allows the plant to develop the best color. Keep the area above 30 degrees Fahrenheit — this tropical plant should be grown in a greenhouse or as a houseplant in areas with freezing winter temperatures.


3-Fill the center of the rosette on the bromeliad with clean rainwater or distilled water whenever the water begins to disappear. Do not use tap water, which contains chemicals that can damage the plant. Pour water into the top of the planter directly on the soil whenever it is dry.


4-Feed the “Fireball” plant from May through August with water-soluble 16-16-16 fertilizer. Mix the fertilizer to 1/3 strength and apply to the soil once a month. Do not feed during the winter, when the light is low and the temperatures are cool.


5-Remove offsets with a sharp pair of shears from the parent plant when they form their own roots. Plant the small bromeliads in individual plant pots.


Things You Will Need

  • Peat moss

  • Bark

  • Sand

  • Plant pot

  • Rainwater

  • Fertilizer

  • Shears

Warning :


  • The sharp leaf edges and small spines can inflict painful wounds. Wear gardening gloves when holding the plants.

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