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Amazon parrots  :


Amazon parrots have a reputation for being the great communicator when it comes to reading their body language. These birds seem to make good use of every feather to tell you when they are excited or aggressive; they fan out their tail feathers and fluff their head feathers. Combine this display with pinning eyes, and your Amazon couldn’t make himself any clearer. 

Be aware that Amazons can be territorial around their cage, as well as the floor beneath it, especially during spring. These birds can go into overload behavior, especially during rough play, so pay attention to your Amazon’s body language. Watch for flared tail feathers, eye pinning and firm, wide-legged posture; when combined, these can signal a forthcoming bite. 

Amazons show their zeal for life with highly animated vocalizations and enthusiastic “Hellos!” They also seem to take a particular liking to opera music and aren’t afraid to attempt the high notes. 

Amazons are passionate about food. They will want two of what you’re having. You generally cannot eat a slice of pizza or a bowl of pasta in front of an Amazon. (In fact, Amazons often have a special “shrill” to express delight when eating a favorite.) For this reason, you have to be mindful of not over-indulging your Amazon with people food. Amazons can be quite playful, but they will choose food over play, so keep your Amazon on an exercise regimen. 

Being rainforest birds, Amazons love getting thoroughly drenched, especially on rainy days and might even go so far as hang upside down like a monkey. These birds generally like to be right in the thick of things. Most are content to have their cage or playgym where the family is. (Just make sure your Amazon gets enough sleep so it doesn’t get cranky. They can be just like us when we are sleep deprived.)

Amazon Parrots


An Amazon Parrot makes an affectionate loyal companion, with an amazing talking ability!


 The Amazon Parrots, often simply called Amazons or Amazon birds, are some of the most popular pet birds. They are medium to large parrots belonging to genus Amazona, and originally called Green Parrots. They are mostly green birds, but with splashes of bright color on or around their head as well as their wings and tail feathers. They are long lived, up to 50 years or more in a good environment.


Amazons are intelligent handsome birds, renown for their talking ability, have outgoing personalities, and are very social. They adapt quickly to their cage and can be quite playful, with a dexterous agility for climbing about their cage or playpen. Their personality is such that they will form a close, loving bond with their keeper and become a life-long companion.


All these great qualities make Amazon Parrots highly sought after, but owners of these parrots need to be very committed. Amazons are generally calm and reasonable, but their personalities are quite complex. Living with an Amazon is similar to living a 2-year-old child in temperament and ability, and for 50-plus years. But they are not children, they are parrots with instinctive, natural behaviors developed to survive in nature. They need a stimulating environment that provides activities, such as climbing areas and chewing toys to keep them content. They can be quite vocal too, but normally as the sun is rising and setting. Amazons require a keeper that is willing to provide training, socialization, and a good amount of attention.


The list of Amazon parrots below includes popular Amazon birds as well lesser known species. Each bird guide provides in-depth information about them, and about living with them. Amazon care covers diet and feeding, housing needs, activity requirements, and bird behaviors; with tips for handling and training Amazon birds, along with breeding information.

Amazon Parrots Origin:


The Amazon Parrots, Amazona, are found in the Neotropical Region of Central and South America, including the West Indies. This region has both subtropical and tropical areas. It contains the largest diversity of parrot species, though in only 6 genera. The Amazona genus bears the name of the great river running through continent of South America, but has come to include this large number of parrots that are found throughout the New World. Amazons are found in mountains, wooded areas, tropical forests, and savannahs.


The Amazona genus is primarily birds that are green in color. They are stocky, medium to large sized parrots with short wings and short, rounded box-like tails. This group of birds was first called Green Parrots, Green Short-tailed Parrots or Short-wing Parrots.


Like Jaco, the name Portuguese sailors ascribed to the African Grey Parrots relating to the sound of their natural cries, seafarers began calling these Amazon birds Kriken derived from the French term criquer, meaning to screech. It was finally in literary works of the later 1800's that they began to be referred as the Amazon Parrots. A notable example is found in a scientific manual of author Dr. Karl Russ, The Speaking Parrots (1884), where he describes them as "...the Green Short-tailed, or Amazon Pairots, from America"


Like Jaco, the name Portuguese sailors ascribed to the African Grey Parrots relating to the sound of their natural cries, seafarers began calling these Amazon birds Kriken derived from the French term criquer, meaning to screech. It was finally in literary works of the later 1800's that they began to be referred as the Amazon Parrots. A notable example is found in a scientific manual of author Dr. Karl Russ, The Speaking Parrots (1884), where he describes them as "...the Green Short-tailed, or Amazon Pairots, from America"


Amazon Parrot History


With the discovery of the new world, Amazon parrots of Central and South America were brought to Spain, and from there to rest of Europe. In 1492, on his return voyage from the Americas to Spain, Christopher Columbus reportedly brought a pair of Caribbean Cuban Amazons to his patron, Queen Isabella. But it was the European naturalists of the 19th century, explorers with great geographical and zoological interests that expanded knowledge of Amazons and many other creatures. This was a romantic period where exotic birds became highly favored with British nobility and royalty. They found them enchanting, and their ability to speak startling.


 In the 1800's many volumes were written about birds and parrots. Yet the Green parrots, soon called Amazon Parrots, were often confused in early classifications. Amazons were less common and of higher value due to the long and arduous ocean voyage to bring them from the Americas. Early aviculturists found it difficult to identify them, there was such a variety of species and color variations. Even today experienced ornithologists are still scrutinizing and re-arranging their classification.


By the later 1800's and early 20th century, ocean crossing became less expensive and more common. All sorts of people, from sailors and innkeepers to common and educated folks, were able to keep Amazons and other large parrots. Green Amazon Parrots as well as Grey parrots became the rage. These birds were displayed in parlors and places of social gathering. Amazons Parrots became even more popular in the United States than in Europe because they were more readily available here. This was due to their geographic origin and a shared Mexican border, which provided an easy access route for importation.


The first half of the 1900's saw interest in large parrots fluctuate up and down with turns in national events. Parrot keeping was affected by the two world wars, as well as several periods of bird disease outbreaks. After World War II, with inexpensive air transportation, importation rose. Keeping large parrots again become highly favored. Parrots of all types arrived in abundance into the United States, spurring aviculture and captive breeding. Today bird importation is greatly restricted, but many parrot species (over 280) are successfully bred in captivity, and Amazon Parrots are readily available



Amazon Parrot Taxonomy


The Green Parrots, commonly referred to as the 'Amazons', are medium to large parrots belonging to genusAmazona. Amazon parrots are stocky birds, primarily green in color, with short wings and short, rounded box-like tails. There is great variation both in size and variety. Identification of the different Amazon parrot species is aided by the colorful accents like yellow, blue, lilac, and red found on or around their heads, their wings, and their tails. Each species has it own striking coloration.


Naturalist Rene Primevere Lesson scientifically described Amazon parrots for the first time in the 1830's. Several naturalists later scientifically described various members of the Amazona group. A number of early naturalists simply wanted to have their names associated with these species. So some were reportedly named without any further evidence or specimens, other than earlier, often confusing descriptions.


 More recently these birds have been under review, with some classification adjustments being made. For example, a recommendation to reclassify the ochrocephala group was made by the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature of the American Ornithologists' Union in 1991. This has resulted in the Amazona ochrocephela now being identified as the Yellow-crowned Amazon only. The Yellow-naped Amazon is now described as Amazona auropalliata, and the Yellow-headed Amazon is now Amazona Oratrix.


There are 31 described species of Amazon parrots in existence today, according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. Six of these are considered endangered and another 4 are considered threatened with extinction. Another 10 are listed as vulnerable, leaving 11 in the category of least concern, but with a stable population. Some of the most popular pet Amazons are among those that are endangered, but captive breeding efforts today allow ownership without infringing on natural populations.


Types of Amazon Parrots


Types of Amazon Parrots vary in a number of factors. These include size, coloration, sexual dimorphism, and ease of breeding. Most of these factors make only a slight difference when determining which species makes the best pet bird. All the amazons are intelligent and have, depending on the individual bird itself, an excellent ability to talk. They can all be affectionate, loyal companions, and they are all long-lived. However, there are some interesting differences that are worth noting.


 In size Amazon birds range from a medium to a fairly large parrot. The White-fronted Amazon Amazona albifrons, is the smallest, reaching only 10" (25 cm) in size. That is quite petite when compared to a number of the larger types of Amazon Parrots, like the Mealy Amazon Amazona farinose which reaches 15" (38cm).


Many Amazons are threatened with extinction, and breeding Amazon birds is helping preserve some species and also helps reduce the number of wild caught birds. However, some species breed more readily in captivity than others. The White-fronted Amazon is the only species in this genus that is sexually dimorphic, with males and females being distinguishable visually. The other types of Amazon parrots will need to be sexed by a surgical probe, endoscopy, a DNA test, or a chromosomal analysis. The sexes must be confirmed and the pair must be harmonious, bonded with each other.


Amazon parrots are mostly green birds, but many species have incredible color accents. A list of Amazon parrots that are highly popular and sought out include:

  • Double Yellow-Headed Amazon or Yellow-headed Amazon Amazona oratrix



















  • Blue-fronted Amazon Amazona aestiva



















  • Lilac-crowned Amazon Amazona finschi


















  • White-fronted Amazon Amazona albifron





























  • Green-cheeked Amazon Amazona viridigenalis




















  • Mealy Amazon Amazona farinose


























  • Orange-winged Amazon Amazona amazonica






















  • Red-lored Amazon Amazona autumnalis























  • Yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala




















  • Yellow-naped Amazon Amazona auropalliata

As your pet Amazon reaches sexual maturity, this may be the time to consider getting a mate for your parrot. This is primarily true if it seems to be distressed and you cannot spend more time with it. Sometimes pairing is the only satisfactory solution even if you do spend more time with it and it still remains distressed. This will depend a lot on you and your bird. A mate does not diminish the bond of trust formed with its keeper, but provides a new experience for both. Overall Amazon birds are very affectionate loyal companions, but definitely require devoted, experienced parrot owners.


References :


  • Animal-World References: Pet Birds - Exotic Birds

  • Dr. David Alderton, The Atlas of Parrots of the World, T.F.H. Publications, Inc. 1991.

  • David Alderton,, A Bird Keeper's Guide to Parrots and Macaws, Salamander Books, 1989

  • Werner and Susanne Lantermann, Amazon Parrots, Barron's Educational Series, Inc. 1988

  • Arthur Freud, All About The Parrots, Howell Book House, 1986

  • Amazona, IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2011.1.

  • Joanie Doss, Amazon FAQ , Up at Six, Last Revised: Sunday, 20-Jul-2008

  • Dr. Karl Russ (1833-1899), The Speaking Parrots: a scientific manual (1884), Internet Archive, Biodiversity Heritage Library

Amazon Parrot Behavior:


 Amazon Parrots are very social birds and a single parrot will make a wonderful pet if it gets plenty of attention. They adapt well to captivity, adjusting easily to their cage or aviary. These birds will tame quickly, bond to their keeper, and may soon begin to mimic the sounds. They enjoy interaction and like their human companions.


 Although Amazons make affectionate and loyal companions, they are not for everyone. They have a very long life span, 50 years (or more) in captivity. Most Amazon birds available as pets are only a generation or two away from their wild counterparts. These parrots still have their wild nature intact and can be unpredictable at times. Though they are desirable pets they require devotion and commitment from their keepers.


Amazon parrots need good socialization and training when young, and regular ongoing interaction and training.  Behavior problems usually stem from something missing in the bird's environment. Boredom, lack of trust, lack of interaction with other birds or people can lead to problems like biting, feather plucking, and screaming. A bond of trust, providing a stimulating environment, and spending time with your bird can help avoid these problems.


Amazons can mix very successfully with children if the parrot gets used to the child. However some Amazons can become extremely jealous of small children. It's best to always be on your guard and supervise them when together. The same is true for other family pets, they may do very well, but again be cautious. Small pets and small birds can especially be at risk.


 In the wild, Amazons live in colonies, but mate for life with just one other bird. Living with a mate is part of the social pattern of the Amazon parrot. To live well, they need close companionship. They go through a hormonal stage as they reach maturity, generally starting at about 4 - 5 years and lasting for a couple of years or longer. During this period they can become restless or distressed, and may start demonstrating undesirable behaviors like feather plucking or screaming. This period will require even more personal attention from their keeper, or perhaps pairing it with a mate.

Amazon Parrots types :


For more information click on the namae or phto to take you to the Animal - World Website for more Information .. 

Amazona aestiva

Amazon Parrots Care Sheet : 


Amazon parrots are highly intelligent birds, very outgoing and renowned talkers. They adapt well to captivity, adjusting easily to their cage or aviary. Amazons require a great deal of mental stimulation. Without the proper attention, social interaction and toys, an Amazon parrot is prone to behavioral problems. People who are willing to devote a considerable amount of time to their parrots will have a delightful companion pet for many decades.


Biological Facts

  • Over 30 Amazona species described

  • Those commonly seen in practice include

    • Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva)

    • Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica)

    • Double Yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix)

    • Yellow-naped Amazon (Amazona auropalliata)

    • Red-lored Amazon (Amazona autumnalis)

    • White-fronted Amazon (Amazona albifrons)

  • Young Amazon parrots have a gray-brown iris. This changes within 2-3 years to a red, red-orange, or chestnut-brown. After that age it is very difficult to determine an Amazon’s age.

  • Weight: 350-600 gm

  • Sexual maturity: 4-6 years

  • Males and females look alike in most cases. A simple blood test can determine the gender of your bird

  • Avg. life span: 40-50 years

  • Maximum recorded life span: 80+ years

  • Origins: Central and South America, Islands of the Caribbean

Amazona oratrix

Amazona autumnalis

Amazona viridigenalis 

Amazona finschi

Amazona albifrons

Amazona ochrocephala ochrocephala 

Amazona auropalliata

Amazona amazonica

Amazona panamensis

Amazona autumnalis

Amazona farinosa

Video : Beautiful Amazon sings and talks

Video : Talking Yellow Naped Amazon Parrot Goes Crazy When Mom Arrives Home

Video :  Talking Amazon Parrot


  • Highly intelligent and curious; Amazons love to explore their surroundings

  • Considered by many to be the most trainable of all parrots

  • Have the capacity to learn a large vocabulary

  • Tamed birds readily adapt to new surroundings and activities; expose early to daily activities in your household as well as to other pets

  • Need environmental enrichment, interesting toys, and foraging exercises to reduce the chance of behavioral problems.

  • Can be very noisy and destructive


  • Amazons in the wild feed on a variety of seeds, fruits, vegetables, and nuts.

  • Seed-based diets are not recommended as they permit pet birds to select an imbalanced diet from what is offered.

  • Formulated diets (“pellets” or “crumbles”) provide more complete and balanced nutrition, do not allow selective feeding, and should comprise about 75% of the diet

  • Dark leafy greens, vegetables, and fruits can make up 20-25% of diet

  • Treats should be limited to only 5% of the diet

  • Clean, fresh water should be provided daily


  • Enclosures should be as large as possible, such that the bird is able to fully extend it’s wings and flap without touching the cage walls

  • Cage should be clean, secure, safe and constructed of durable, non-toxic materials

  • Perches should be of variable widths, heights, and textures. Also provide a concrete perch to help to maintain the toenails.

  • Avoid placing perches directly over food or water to prevent contamination

  • Access to natural light is preferred

  • Avoid drafty areas.

  • Parrots should stay in their cage or a “bird safe” room when they are not under direct supervision.

  • Birds with unrestricted access to the home are at risk for accidents such as toxin ingestion, electrocution, pet attacks, and drowning.

Preventive Care

  • Physical examinations every 6-12 months

    • Consult a veterinarian with experience in avian medicine if you have any questions or concerns about your bird’s health.

  • Annual fecal examination for parasites, yeast, and bacteria

  • Vaccination for Polyomavirus, as directed by your veterinarian

  • Routine blood testing

  • Wing, nail trimming as needed

Common Medical Disorders

  • Obesity

  • Atherosclerosis

  • Respiratory infections

  • Discolored feathers (hepatopathy or malnutrition)

  • Foot necrosis

  • Chlamydiosis (rhinitis, sinusitis, enteritis)

  • Fatty liver disease

  • Papillomatosis

  • Chronic sinus infection

  • Egg-binding

Amazon Parrots - Diseases :


Respiratory Signs, Chronic Depression, Weightloss:

Aspergillosis (fungal disease), bacterial infections / pneumonia, nutritional deficiencies (Hypovitaminosis A), inhaled toxins

Upper Respiratory Infections: most commonly based on bacterial infections, but can also be viral or nutritionally. Predominantly affects Mexican Red-Headed Amazons, Lilac-Crowned and Red-lored Amazons)

Pox-virus Infections. Highly contagious. Predominantly affects Double Yellow and Yellow-naped Amazons.

Dietary Deficiencies: Due to their preference of seeds as primary food source. Vitamin A deficiencies in particular are common and exemplify themselves by oral abscesses, sub-mandibular swelling or by a blunting of the choanal papilla.

  • Vitamin A Deficiency: Vitamin A promotes appetite, digestion, and also increases resistance to infection and to some parasites.

    Please refer to "Bird Nutrition" for food items rich in Vitamin A.

Obesity - predominantly seen in Mealy and Blue-crowned Amazons. Hypothyroidism may be a factor.

Fatty Liver Syndrome - Again caused by their preference of seed-based diets.

Lead Poisoning exemplifying itself by red urine (hematuria) and acute depression.

Cloacal Papillomas. Affected birds may be straining to defecate or have blood in the stool. Owners may see a reddish growth protruding from the vent. This condition is suspected to be transmissible and affected parrots should not be included in a breeding program.

Seizures (affecting primarily Red-lored Amazons)

Cancer - particularly liver cancer -- common in older amazons.

  • Tumors: Tumors can be benign or malignant (cancerous) and can involve any organ or system. Some species of birds tend to develop benign fatty tumors called "Lipomas."

    • Lipomas are commonly seen in overweight Amazon Parrot, Rose-breasted Cockatoos andBudgies. It seems that older budgies are more prone to tumors of the ovary, testicle or kidney, which may eventually put pressure on the sciatic nerve on the affected side, resulting in lameness of the foot or leg.Fibromas are tumors found on the wing and they may need to be surgically removed. In some instances, amputation of the wing may be necessary.


The are especially susceptible to: Polyoma ... Feather Plucking / Mutilation ... Papilloma


The Most Common Diseases of the Amazon Parrot


courtesy to : By Jennifer Mueller, Demand Media

Amazon parrots require a high level of responsibility and commitment. They are loud birds, and demand a lot of attention and interaction from the people in the household. If kept healthy, the parrot can live as long as 60 years. Parrot owners can prevent most common diseases by cleaning and maintaining the bird’s enclosure daily and carefully monitoring the bird’s behavior.

Bacterial Diseases :


According to aviary veterinarian Margaret Wissman, bacterial infections are the most commonly diagnosed diseases in her practice. Bacterial infections are easier to prevent than they are to treat. Fresh, non-chlorinated water, preferably not in a flat open bowl, is the easiest way to prevent bacterial infections. Chlamydiosis is another common bacterial disease in Amazon parrots. Symptoms include loss of appetite and nasal discharge. Parrot owners should not attempt over-the-counter treatments for this disease. Rather, the bird should be taken to a veterinarian, who will prescribe antibiotics.


Viral Diseases :


Many viruses that infect parrots are airborne and difficult to isolate and control. This is especially problematic when multiple birds live together in the same cage. Polyoma virus kills baby birds within 24 to 48 hours of infection. Adult birds carry the virus and pass it on to the young. There is a vaccine that will prevent infection. Amazon parrots are also susceptible to papilloma. This virus is similar to human warts. Veterinarians can surgically remove papilloma from infected birds.


Nutritional Diseases :


Obesity is common in Amazon parrots, and owners must carefully monitor the bird’s diet to keep it healthy. Obesity in parrots, as in humans, can lead to other health problems. A seed-based diet can lead to liver problems, including fatty liver syndrome, and to vitamin A deficiency. These problems are preventable by switching the bird from a seed-based diet to a pellet-based diet, supplemented with fresh fruits and vegetables.


Cancer and Tumors :


Older Amazons in particular can develop benign or malignant tumors in any organ or system. Amazon parrots are particularly susceptible to liver cancer, especially if their liver has been weakened by a seed-based diet. Obese birds may develop lipomas, which are benign but can affect strength and movement. Fibromas are tumors on the parrot’s wing. They must be surgically removed and can result in amputation of the wing.


  • Avian Web: Common Diseases of Amazon Parrots

  • Judy Leach’s Parrots: Diseases-

  • Tampa Bay Area Pet Supplies Plus: Animal Care: Amazon Parrot 

  • Exotic Pet Vet: Five Most Common Aviary Diseases


-World Parrot Trust: Parrot Encyclopedia: Amazon Parrots


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